Welcome!

Industrial IoT Authors: Pat Romanski, Liz McMillan, Elizabeth White, Scott Allen, William Schmarzo

Related Topics: Microsoft Cloud

Microsoft Cloud: Article

The Myth of .NET Purity

The Myth of .NET Purity

There is an increasing amount of discussion around the topic of ".NET Purity" in development circles. When selling an application the question often arises "is your application 100% .NET?" or "How much of your application is .NET?" There is an implied qualitative judgment behind these questions and it's usually pejorative.

The implication is that an application that is entirely written in .NET, presumably without any interoperation with COM or direct calls to the Win32 API, is superior to an application that is a combination of technologies.

Certainly .NET represents a fantastic leap in developer productivity and puts a clean, consistent face on the services that the Windows Platform provides. For many years the set of interfaces provided by the Windows OS Platform - collectively known as the Windows SDK - have been exposed to developers as exported "C"-style functions in DLLs, and in recent years, via the Component Object Model (COM).

Common Language Runtime or Virtual Machine?
Often the .NET Common Language Runtime, or CLR, is directly compared to the Java Virtual Machine. Initially, there are many clear parallels: both are "managed" environments that provide a component container, both consume a "partially chewed" intermediate language, both provide low-level services like garbage collection and threading conveniences.

While these parallels are superficially compelling, these two implementations differ fundamentally in philosophy. Comparing the CLR to the VM is reasonable only to a certain point - their architectural goals are ultimately different.

Sun promotes a marketing program called 100% Pure Java, which is certainly appropriate if code portability and underlying operating system transparency is a desirable endpoint. However, many 3rd party Java Application Servers create a competitive advantage by judicious use of "C" function calls directly down (via Java Native Interface or JNI) into their host Operating Systems value-added services that are not exposed by the Java Application Platform (the Java Class Library). Calling into the core platform is the only way to make use of base functionality that is only presented via a native interface!

The Java VM is truly a "virtual machine" that's ultimate goal is to abstract (virtualize) away the underlying Operating System and provide an idealized (not necessarily ideal, but idealized) environment for development. The Java Virtual machine is also intimately united with the API - the Java Application Platform, which services provided by the VM implementation. Regardless of where you run your compiled Java code, you will run within the context of the Virtual Machine and ostensibly link with supplied Java Platform APIs.

The .NET Common Language Runtime is named well as it is used more as a Language Runtime than a Virtual Machine. While it successfully abstracts away aspects of underlying hardware through its use of an Intermediate Language, when the CLR is combined with the .NET Framework Library of APIs it is married to the underlying platform, which is Windows. The CLR provides all the facilities of the Windows Platform to any .NET-enabled Language.

.NET Framework Library
The Windows Platform has dozens and dozens of high-level system services that are exposed by thousands of APIs. This large library of functionality encompasses various levels of richness. A low-level API may open a file off a disk, while a high-level one might play an audio file. The designers of the .NET Framework wanted to create a consistent object-oriented face on a rich legacy of platform functionality. The CLR and .NET Framework work together to expose the capabilities within the Windows Platform, including those that may have previously been hidden away in difficult or little known APIs.

While the CLR provides a new paradigm for application development, it does not close the door on existing libraries. The CLR provides interop services to the developer but the biggest consumer of these services are the .NET Class Libraries that unlock existing Windows Platform abilities via a .NET API!

For example, when sending email using the .NET Framework Library class System.Web.Mail.SmtpMail, the Class Library uses a helper class that abstracts the existing CDO (Collaboration Data Objects) COM Library. This is just one example where a .NET Library developer chose to rely on a production-ready reliable existing library rather than write something from scratch. This example and dozens of others with the Library not withstanding, the Common Language Runtime still at some point needs to work with the Windows internal APIs.

If Microsoft were to truly virtualize the machine, they would have marginalized their investment in the Windows platform. Certainly it behooved the designers to make transitions to existing libraries as painless as possible. They have enabled this with NET » COM Interop via both Runtime- and COM-Callable Wrappers, the ability to tap into standard Win32 Platform APIs via a technology called P/Invoke (short for Platform Invoke) as well as other options. When writing code that is hosted in the CLR the vast resources of platform are just sitting under the developer - the runtime is transparent rather than virtual! This marks a fundamentally different view of the platform that other virtualizing machine implementations.

While creating a new fresh application using only .NET may offer some benefits in the arenas of deployment or marketing, these benefits may be not realized when weighed against the cost of rewriting non-.NET components in .NET when those legacy components could have been leveraged. A "pure" .NET solution can only make use of either those pieces of functionality that can be achieve entirely within the runtime, or those functions that have been exposed by the Base Class Library - which itself uses COM Interop and P/Invoke!

The .NET Framework Library itself isn't "pure .NET" as it takes every opportunity to take full advantage of the underlying platform primitives. Moreover, the concept of .NET Purity is rendered specious in this new light. The .NET Framework is the best way to create business components on the Windows Platform, but any applications along with the .NET Framework are only lifted as high as the underlying Windows OS services.

"Hybrid" Solutions provide Real Solutions
Many large existing applications are written in Visual C++ and COM. They are written "close to the metal" to take full advantage of native Windows multi-threading and fine-grained memory management. However, new business components may also be written in a .NET language such as C# or VB.NET. The existing system then hosts the .NET Common Language Runtime within its process space and Interops. The interface is usually COM interop but only incurs minimal overhead of between 10 and 40 processor instructions per in-proc call.

.NET Components hosted with in the legacy applicaiton can take advantage of that application's existing services. Lower level developer features such as memory management, object lifetime and object orientation are provided by the CLR, while higher level vertical-specific business functionality is exposed via the legacy application.

This "hybrid" can provide a best-of-breed solution on the Windows Platform exploiting both the highly performant low-level APIs via C++ and the highly componentized and object oriented features of the .NET Framework. These solutions can work very successfully while companies migrate their existing code bases to the .NET Framework.

More Stories By Scott Hanselman

Scott Hanselman will be starting a new job at Microsoft as a senior program manager in the developer division. His blog is at http://www.hanselman.com.

Comments (4) View Comments

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


Most Recent Comments
Tim Huckaby 07/25/03 07:07:00 PM EDT

Your comments on system.directory are interesting. Adsi is simply a com wrapper, so technically it?s a ?wrapped wrapper? of the native ldap api which, of course, is c++ only. Being that said, the directory entry class you are referring to is a ?wrapped, wrapped wrapper?. Ultimately, the big disappointment of the .net framework 1.1 and the hope for 2.0 is more native framework classes.

Derek Ferguson 07/18/03 10:12:00 AM EDT

I would never suggest that COM Interop should be gotten rid of or is in any way, shape, or form "evil." However, as a developer who spends more than 90% of my coding time working with the System.DirectoryServices and System.Management namespaces, let me tell you -- MS could have save developers a lot of gried by having written some managed protocol handlers here, rather than just wrapping up the old, troubled API's.

As one example of this, the DirectoryEntry class in System.DirectoryServices allows you to pass a username and password to its constructor. However, when you use the WinNT ADSI provider, these parameters are sometimes ignored. Why is this? Because of a limitation in the existing API's that were wrapped!

Similar problems abound in the System.Management namespace -- where I recently managed to prove that Impersonation (a native API) interacts differently with EnablePrivilieges (a wrapped API) under ASP.NET than it does under the Console. In working through this with MS, I have been passed around to 10 different people in their Support infrastructure. Why? Because the old, obscure API's that have been wrapped are a "dark art" that are only known by a few individuals within the Redmond infrastructure.

Once again: it would've been better to have recreated the whole thing in C#.

Dean Guida 07/25/03 04:00:00 PM EDT

There is a lot to be said for purity for purity's sake. I have never subscribed to this type of thinking. At the end of the day we all want to build dependable software that solves the business problem at hand. Everything should always be taking in context of a solution with a sense of practicality. I think most of the software development community has this maturity.

Patrick Hynds 07/17/03 10:16:00 PM EDT

I think this article is right on, but felt that we should confront the issue of why this kind of rebuttal is needed (and it is needed). We find people who are earnest only in so far as they can justify their existence. Therefore they brand something heresy as soon as they abandon the practice themselves. Lets assume that COM interop was a horrible waste of resource, it still wouldn't justify discarding a tool and the wealth of existing functionality the last generation always holds in such a wholesale manner. I have seen people in ASP circles a while back declare that "Session State is bad". Like hybrid applications Session State in ASP is a tool, use it, don't use it, but if you happen to need a hammer it doesn't make the saw evil.

@ThingsExpo Stories
The cloud market growth today is largely in public clouds. While there is a lot of spend in IT departments in virtualization, these aren’t yet translating into a true “cloud” experience within the enterprise. What is stopping the growth of the “private cloud” market? In his general session at 18th Cloud Expo, Nara Rajagopalan, CEO of Accelerite, explored the challenges in deploying, managing, and getting adoption for a private cloud within an enterprise. What are the key differences between wh...
Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with the 19th International Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world and ThingsExpo Silicon Valley Call for Papers is now open.
It is one thing to build single industrial IoT applications, but what will it take to build the Smart Cities and truly society changing applications of the future? The technology won’t be the problem, it will be the number of parties that need to work together and be aligned in their motivation to succeed. In his Day 2 Keynote at @ThingsExpo, Henrik Kenani Dahlgren, Portfolio Marketing Manager at Ericsson, discussed how to plan to cooperate, partner, and form lasting all-star teams to change t...
Connected devices and the industrial internet are growing exponentially every year with Cisco expecting 50 billion devices to be in operation by 2020. In this period of growth, location-based insights are becoming invaluable to many businesses as they adopt new connected technologies. Knowing when and where these devices connect from is critical for a number of scenarios in supply chain management, disaster management, emergency response, M2M, location marketing and more. In his session at @Th...
Machine Learning helps make complex systems more efficient. By applying advanced Machine Learning techniques such as Cognitive Fingerprinting, wind project operators can utilize these tools to learn from collected data, detect regular patterns, and optimize their own operations. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Stuart Gillen, Director of Business Development at SparkCognition, discussed how research has demonstrated the value of Machine Learning in delivering next generation analytics to imp...
SYS-CON Events announced today that ReadyTalk, a leading provider of online conferencing and webinar services, has been named Vendor Presentation Sponsor at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. ReadyTalk delivers audio and web conferencing services that inspire collaboration and enable the Future of Work for today’s increasingly digital and mobile workforce. By combining intuitive, innovative tec...
Amazon has gradually rolled out parts of its IoT offerings, but these are just the tip of the iceberg. In addition to optimizing their backend AWS offerings, Amazon is laying the ground work to be a major force in IoT - especially in the connected home and office. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Chris Kocher, founder and managing director of Grey Heron, explained how Amazon is extending its reach to become a major force in IoT by building on its dominant cloud IoT platform, its Dash Button strat...
In his keynote at 18th Cloud Expo, Andrew Keys, Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise, provided an overview of the evolution of the Internet and the Database and the future of their combination – the Blockchain. Andrew Keys is Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise. He comes to ConsenSys Enterprise with capital markets, technology and entrepreneurial experience. Previously, he worked for UBS investment bank in equities analysis. Later, he was responsible for the creation and distribution of life sett...
19th Cloud Expo, taking place November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy. Meanwhile, 94% of enterpri...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Bsquare has been named “Silver Sponsor” of SYS-CON's @ThingsExpo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. For more than two decades, Bsquare has helped its customers extract business value from a broad array of physical assets by making them intelligent, connecting them, and using the data they generate to optimize business processes.
There are several IoTs: the Industrial Internet, Consumer Wearables, Wearables and Healthcare, Supply Chains, and the movement toward Smart Grids, Cities, Regions, and Nations. There are competing communications standards every step of the way, a bewildering array of sensors and devices, and an entire world of competing data analytics platforms. To some this appears to be chaos. In this power panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, Bradley Holt, Developer Advocate a...
There is little doubt that Big Data solutions will have an increasing role in the Enterprise IT mainstream over time. Big Data at Cloud Expo - to be held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA - has announced its Call for Papers is open. Cloud computing is being adopted in one form or another by 94% of enterprises today. Tens of billions of new devices are being connected to The Internet of Things. And Big Data is driving this bus. An exponential increase is...
Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 19th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the most profound change in personal and enterprise IT since the creation of the Worldwide Web more than 20 years ago. All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devices - comp...
A strange thing is happening along the way to the Internet of Things, namely far too many devices to work with and manage. It has become clear that we'll need much higher efficiency user experiences that can allow us to more easily and scalably work with the thousands of devices that will soon be in each of our lives. Enter the conversational interface revolution, combining bots we can literally talk with, gesture to, and even direct with our thoughts, with embedded artificial intelligence, wh...
Cognitive Computing is becoming the foundation for a new generation of solutions that have the potential to transform business. Unlike traditional approaches to building solutions, a cognitive computing approach allows the data to help determine the way applications are designed. This contrasts with conventional software development that begins with defining logic based on the current way a business operates. In her session at 18th Cloud Expo, Judith S. Hurwitz, President and CEO of Hurwitz & ...
Cloud computing is being adopted in one form or another by 94% of enterprises today. Tens of billions of new devices are being connected to The Internet of Things. And Big Data is driving this bus. An exponential increase is expected in the amount of information being processed, managed, analyzed, and acted upon by enterprise IT. This amazing is not part of some distant future - it is happening today. One report shows a 650% increase in enterprise data by 2020. Other estimates are even higher....
In his general session at 18th Cloud Expo, Lee Atchison, Principal Cloud Architect and Advocate at New Relic, discussed cloud as a ‘better data center’ and how it adds new capacity (faster) and improves application availability (redundancy). The cloud is a ‘Dynamic Tool for Dynamic Apps’ and resource allocation is an integral part of your application architecture, so use only the resources you need and allocate /de-allocate resources on the fly.
The 19th International Cloud Expo has announced that its Call for Papers is open. Cloud Expo, to be held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, brings together Cloud Computing, Big Data, Internet of Things, DevOps, Digital Transformation, Microservices and WebRTC to one location. With cloud computing driving a higher percentage of enterprise IT budgets every year, it becomes increasingly important to plant your flag in this fast-expanding business opportuni...
industrial company for a multi-year contract initially valued at over $4.0 million. In addition to DataV software, Bsquare will also provide comprehensive systems integration, support and maintenance services. DataV leverages advanced data analytics, predictive reasoning, data-driven diagnostics, and automated orchestration of remediation actions in order to improve asset uptime while reducing service and warranty costs.
Vidyo, Inc., has joined the Alliance for Open Media. The Alliance for Open Media is a non-profit organization working to define and develop media technologies that address the need for an open standard for video compression and delivery over the web. As a member of the Alliance, Vidyo will collaborate with industry leaders in pursuit of an open and royalty-free AOMedia Video codec, AV1. Vidyo’s contributions to the organization will bring to bear its long history of expertise in codec technolo...