Welcome!

Industrial IoT Authors: William Schmarzo, Elizabeth White, Stackify Blog, Yeshim Deniz, SmartBear Blog

Blog Feed Post

A Brief History of TCP

The foundation of the Internet is TCP, it includes the rules for formatting messages, handling congestion, error correction and provides information on where a packet should be delivered, whether it arrived too quickly for the receiving computer and whether it arrived at all. Basically TCP is the glue that ensures network conditions work smoothly. As the way people connect to the internet has changed from 2400 baud modems to high speed fiber to the home and mobile connectivity – TCP is being stretched to perform optimally across multiple channels. It seems like for many years development and innovation in TCP had slowed down and now with mobile becoming a more popular way of accessing the internet and initiatives to make the web faster there is renewed development and research into TCP. The table below highlights some of the major events in the life of TCP over the past 40 years.

DATE

EVENT

1974

RFC 675 specification of Internet Transmission Control Protocol published

1988

Jacobson’s “Congestion Avoidance and Control” paper sparked multiple congestion related improvements, including  Tahoe release of BSD.

1990

Reno introduced in BSD.

1994

TCP Vegas altered way in which set timeouts and RTT delays were measured.

1997

RFC 2001 proposed as standard for dealing with TCP slow start, congestion avoidance, fast retransmit and fast recovery.

1999

RFC 2581 proposed standard for TCP congestion control obsoletes RFC 2001

2002

First 3G network available commercially

2006

First 4g system deployed in South Korea

2009

RFC 5681 draft standard for TCP congestion control obsoletes RFC 2581

2010

TCP Fast Open proposed

2011

Proposal to reduce retransmission timeout from 3 to 1

2013

RFC 6824 specification for multipath TCP published as experimental standard.

QUIC proposed as alternative to TCP for web based applications. 

 

TCP was designed in 1973, during the infancy of the internet and was made for a wired infrastructure, namely ARPA Net, a low capacity network of 213 computers very different than today where there are more than 500 million connected devices in US homes. As the network of computers increased and the internet expanded “congestion collapses” began to occur where the transmission rates of networks dropped by a thousand fold from 32Kbps to 40 bps. This drastic drop in rates led to some investigation and analysis by leading computer scientists and ultimately led to the creation of what we now know as congestion control.

The internet has been advancing at a rate that nobody could imagine where today not only are our computers connected but also our phones, televisions, cars and even our glasses. With the rise of more connected devices, we are using mobile networks such as 3G, 4G and high capacity fixed line networks to access information. Needless to say, these networks have very different characteristics in comparison to their ancestral networks. These different characteristics require that TCP stacks need to evolve to become more effective in the changing landscape.

Successful, reliable and fast transmission of data is all controlled by a number of TCP parameters that can be tuned and modified depending on the network characteristics. With-in BIG-IP we breakdown the TCP properties into the following major categories:

· Resource Management

· Behavior

· Performance

Over the coming weeks we will be diving into each of these categories in further detail.

Read the original blog entry...

More Stories By Dawn Parzych

Dawn Parzych is a Technical Product Marketing Manager at Instart Logic. Dawn has had a passion for web performance for over 15 years with a focus on how to make the web faster. As a technical product marketing manager at Instart Logic, she researches and writes about trends in the web performance space and how they impact the user experience. Prior to joining Instart Logic, Dawn worked at F5 Networks, Gomez & Empirix.

IoT & Smart Cities Stories
At CloudEXPO Silicon Valley, June 24-26, 2019, Digital Transformation (DX) is a major focus with expanded DevOpsSUMMIT and FinTechEXPO programs within the DXWorldEXPO agenda. Successful transformation requires a laser focus on being data-driven and on using all the tools available that enable transformation if they plan to survive over the long term. A total of 88% of Fortune 500 companies from a generation ago are now out of business. Only 12% still survive. Similar percentages are found throug...
Every organization is facing their own Digital Transformation as they attempt to stay ahead of the competition, or worse, just keep up. Each new opportunity, whether embracing machine learning, IoT, or a cloud migration, seems to bring new development, deployment, and management models. The results are more diverse and federated computing models than any time in our history.
At CloudEXPO Silicon Valley, June 24-26, 2019, Digital Transformation (DX) is a major focus with expanded DevOpsSUMMIT and FinTechEXPO programs within the DXWorldEXPO agenda. Successful transformation requires a laser focus on being data-driven and on using all the tools available that enable transformation if they plan to survive over the long term. A total of 88% of Fortune 500 companies from a generation ago are now out of business. Only 12% still survive. Similar percentages are found throug...
Dion Hinchcliffe is an internationally recognized digital expert, bestselling book author, frequent keynote speaker, analyst, futurist, and transformation expert based in Washington, DC. He is currently Chief Strategy Officer at the industry-leading digital strategy and online community solutions firm, 7Summits.
Digital Transformation is much more than a buzzword. The radical shift to digital mechanisms for almost every process is evident across all industries and verticals. This is often especially true in financial services, where the legacy environment is many times unable to keep up with the rapidly shifting demands of the consumer. The constant pressure to provide complete, omnichannel delivery of customer-facing solutions to meet both regulatory and customer demands is putting enormous pressure on...
IoT is rapidly becoming mainstream as more and more investments are made into the platforms and technology. As this movement continues to expand and gain momentum it creates a massive wall of noise that can be difficult to sift through. Unfortunately, this inevitably makes IoT less approachable for people to get started with and can hamper efforts to integrate this key technology into your own portfolio. There are so many connected products already in place today with many hundreds more on the h...
The standardization of container runtimes and images has sparked the creation of an almost overwhelming number of new open source projects that build on and otherwise work with these specifications. Of course, there's Kubernetes, which orchestrates and manages collections of containers. It was one of the first and best-known examples of projects that make containers truly useful for production use. However, more recently, the container ecosystem has truly exploded. A service mesh like Istio addr...
Digital Transformation: Preparing Cloud & IoT Security for the Age of Artificial Intelligence. As automation and artificial intelligence (AI) power solution development and delivery, many businesses need to build backend cloud capabilities. Well-poised organizations, marketing smart devices with AI and BlockChain capabilities prepare to refine compliance and regulatory capabilities in 2018. Volumes of health, financial, technical and privacy data, along with tightening compliance requirements by...
Charles Araujo is an industry analyst, internationally recognized authority on the Digital Enterprise and author of The Quantum Age of IT: Why Everything You Know About IT is About to Change. As Principal Analyst with Intellyx, he writes, speaks and advises organizations on how to navigate through this time of disruption. He is also the founder of The Institute for Digital Transformation and a sought after keynote speaker. He has been a regular contributor to both InformationWeek and CIO Insight...
Andrew Keys is Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise. He comes to ConsenSys Enterprise with capital markets, technology and entrepreneurial experience. Previously, he worked for UBS investment bank in equities analysis. Later, he was responsible for the creation and distribution of life settlement products to hedge funds and investment banks. After, he co-founded a revenue cycle management company where he learned about Bitcoin and eventually Ethereal. Andrew's role at ConsenSys Enterprise is a mul...