Welcome!

Industrial IoT Authors: Liz McMillan, Ed Featherston, Pat Romanski, Elizabeth White, William Schmarzo

Related Topics: Java IoT, Industrial IoT, Microservices Expo, IBM Cloud, Weblogic, IoT User Interface

Java IoT: Article

Part 3 | Component Models in Java

Service Component Architecture Model

Service Component Architecture (shortly referred as SCA) is a technology for creating services from components. SCA is a set of OASIS standards and part of it is developed with the collaboration of vendors from open source community, referred as "OSOA" Open SOA. SCA helps to build systems as a collection of interconnected components. The components created in SCA communicate through the services. The advantage of SCA is its neutral component model. It allows services to be built by any language component like Java, C++, BPEL, JavaScript, Ruby, Python etc. SCA addresses two important needs of component world:

  • Complexity
  • Reusability

SCA is best suited model for distributed systems. SCA simplifies building of systems by simple assembling of components. SCA like other component model discussed in the previous sections facilitates component assembly in the middle tier - business tier of N-tier architecture. SCA has some key elements like services, components, composites and domains.

In SCA, applications are created and assembled as components. Components contain the functionality to be exposed to the clients. The functionality provided by the components is exposed as services. Multiple components in the application interact and get bounded by a mechanism called "wire". Components are connected through wire and their services are exposed through a composite.

Several open source tools/IDEs helps to develop SCA application using designer tools. The key elements in SCA are represented through some standard symbols are represented in Figure 1.

Figure 1: SCA Key Elements

 

Services
Services are the functionality provided by the components. They are intended to perform the business function. Services can be implemented in any language like Java, C# and BPEL. Service has two primary attributes:

  • Service Contract
  • Service Address

Service contract defines the methods, input parameters for the methods and the return value. Service contract can be defined in several ways. In Java, service contract is a simple interface (POJI - Plain Old Java Interface) which exposes the functionality of the components. Service contract in Java is usually an interface which can be used locally as well as remotely. The remote service contract will have SCA annotation @Remotable. In SOA world, the service contract is defined as a WSDL file. IDL is also one of the ways to define service contract.

While service contract exposes the functionality provided by the component, Service address is used by the clients to uniquely identify the service. Service address is unique per service. Reusability is achieved through the service address, because clients connect to the service through the service address.

Component
Component provides one or more services. Components contain the business logic for the functionality exposed by service contracts - interfaces. Components can be implemented in any language supported by runtime like Java, C#, BPEL, Ruby, Python etc. Components are implemented as POJOs in Java. The Java class has to implement the Java interface defined as the service contract. Component will have an associated service, optionally a reference and a property. The service is used for exposing the functionality of the component. A reference is another interface contract provided by some other component. Component's dependency on another component is resolved through reference. A property of a component is a configurable parameter which is used to change the behavior of the component dynamically during runtime (with some of its parameters being changed). In the Java class which represents the component, property is specified as an annotation and the reference is also mentioned as an annotation.

Figure 2: Component with Services, References and Properties

Composite
A composite is a XML file which is used for configuring components. The association of the component with the service and the reference is all mentioned in the composite. A composite is the main element which is used for configuring components. The XML file is written using a language called SCDL - Service Component Definition Language which is based on XML. The composite can be written as set of XML elements or can be created using the composite designer tools provided by IDEs.

Figure 3: Composite graphical representation

First a composite is defined, then components are defined as part of it. The services provided are defined as part of the component definition. A composite is used to configure more than one component.

If a component is dependent on another component, then a reference is defined on the component which has dependency. The reference is service contract of the other component. Service and reference are connected using "Wire". Wire acts as a binding element between client component and the target component. The wire binding can be defined as a local or remote binding. The wire binding reference is also configured in the composite. In the implementation, the references to other components are referred using @Reference annotation. The reference of the target component is obtained using dependency injection. The reference dependency injection can be constructor based or setter methods based or field based injection. However the field based injection is concise which is preferred.

If the component's behavior has to be changed during runtime through change in the value of the attributes,  a property can be defined on the composite.

Figure 4: Component Wiring

Domain
Components are created and configured in composite. The composite is deployed in SCA runtime environment called ‘Domain'. A SCA domain is a collection of SCA runtime instances. SCA runtime instances host components in containers. SCA domain allows composites to be deployed as a whole and also individual component. It is possible to deploy components from a composite to be deployed in different runtimes which is purely vendor specific. The domain provides the required services like resource sharing, communication and management to the components deployed in it.

SCA Component Model Example
The SCA component model can be understood with the same shopping Cart example discussed in the models discussed earlier.

Here in this example, there is only a single component called ‘CartServiceComponent'  which exposes its functionality through the CartService interface which is the service contract for the CartServiceComponent. As a first step, the service contract is defined. The CartService interface is a service contract which contains the business methods defined by the component.

package com.online.shopping.intf;

import java.util.Collection;

public interface CartService {
public void addItem(Product product, int quantity);
public Collection<Product> listItems();    
public double getTotalPrice();
public void clearCart();
}

The CartService is implemented by the class CartServiceImpl is a POJO which represents the CartServiceComponent.

package com.online.shopping.impl;

import java.util.Collection;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.Map;

import com.online.shopping.intf.CartService;
import com.online.shopping.intf.Product;

public class CartServiceImpl implements CartService {
Map<Product, Integer> items = new HashMap<Product, Integer>();      
@Override
public void addItem(Product product, int quantity) {
if(items.containsKey(product)) {
quantity +=items.get(product);
}
items.put(product, quantity);
}

@Override
public Collection<Product> listItems() {
return items.keySet();
}

@Override
public double getTotalPrice() {
double totalPrice = 0;
for(Product product: items.keySet()) {
totalPrice+=product.getPrice()* items.get(product);           
}
return totalPrice;
}

@Override
public void clearCart() {
items.clear();
}

}

The service contract and the component are connected using SCA composite designer tool provided by IDEs like Eclipse. Using the tool, a composite is created named ‘Cart.composite'. The composite is an XML file which will have an associated Cart.composite_diagram which represents the composite file as a graphical representation. In the Cart composite diagram, using the component creation tool, a component is created named ‘CartServiceComponent'. A service is added to the composite named ‘CartService'.  Using the designer tool, the Java interface file is dragged and dropped on to the Service defined and the Java implementation class to the CartServiceComponent. The service is promoted using the tool (that is exposing the service for clients to consume it). The graphical representation of composite diagram is as follows:

Figure 5: SCA Component Model - Cart Component Example

The composite file contains XML code that describes the component assembly in the composite diagram.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8" standalone="no"?>
<sca:composite xmlns:sca="http://www.osoa.org/xmlns/sca/1.0" name="Cart" targetNamespace="http://eclipse.org/SCACart/Cart">
<sca:component name="CartServiceComponent">
<sca:implementation.java
class="com.online.shopping.impl.CartServiceImpl"/>

<sca:service name="CartService">
<sca:interface.java
interface="com.online.shopping.intf.CartService"/>
</sca:service>

</sca:component>

<sca:service name="CartService"         
promote="CartServiceComponent/CartService"/>

</sca:composite>

The CartServiceComponent is created and assembled. The component is deployed in SCADomain as a single component with the id ‘CartService'. This is evident from the <sca:service> element having an attribute called ‘promote' in the composite XML file. The SCADomain is the runtime for the SCA components. In this example, Apache Tuscany is the runtime used for deploying composite. The client for the CartServiceComponent first looks up for the composite in the SCADomain where it is deployed. From the domain, client looks for the service with the service address and the service contract. Once it gets the service reference, the client consumes the methods exposed by the component.

package com.client.shopping;

import java.util.Collection;

import org.apache.tuscany.sca.host.embedded.SCADomain;

import com.online.shopping.intf.CartService;
import com.online.shopping.intf.Product;

public class CartClient {

public static void main(String arg[]) {
SCADomain scaDomain = SCADomain.newInstance("Cart.composite");
CartService cartService = scaDomain.getService(
CartService.class, "CartServiceComponent");

Product product = new Product();
product.setName("OSGi");
product.setPrice(550.00);
cartService.addItem(product, 20);

Product newProduct = new Product();
newProduct.setName("SCA");
newProduct.setPrice(300.00);
cartService.addItem(newProduct, 10);

Collection<Product> productItems = cartService.listItems();
for(Product items: productItems) {
System.out.println(items.getName()+"******"+ items.getPrice());             
}            

System.out.println("Total Price of Cart Items: "+cartService.getTotalPrice());

cartService.clearCart();
}
}

Thus SCA component model provides easy steps for creating and assembling components. Assembling components is easy by linking the reference to the service of the target components. SCA promotes reuse through service contracts and address and solves complexity through loose coupling. SCA as a component model promotes reusability and it is highly preferred for assembly if components. The advantage of SCA is its language neutral for several languages like Java, C#, Ruby etc.

Summary
Componentization provides several advantages. The component models play an important role in developing, deploying and assembling of components for an application. Component models provide a simpler way for component reference and look up and hence making the development easier.

In this article we discussed about four latest component models in Java - Enterprise JavaBeans, Spring, OSGi and SCA in brief. We understand that each component model has its own standards for development and assembly. The runtime environment provided by these component framework helps in execution of the components developed using the appropriate model. We also tried to understand the similarity and differences of these component models through a simple component ‘Cart' component which is part of online shopping application.

More Stories By Piram Manickam

Piram Manickam works at Infosys Limited. He would like to acknowledge and thank Sangeetha S, a beloved colleague and friend, for her invaluable contributions in this work.

More Stories By Subrahmanya SV

Subrahmanya SV works at Infosys Limited. He would like to acknowledge and thank Sangeetha S, a beloved colleague and friend, for her invaluable contributions in this work.

More Stories By S Sangeetha

S Sangeetha is a Senior Technical Architect at the E-Commerce Research Labs at Infosys Limited. She has over 15 years of experience in architecture, design and development of enterprise Java applications. She is also involved in enhancing the technical skills of Architects at Infosys. She has co-authored a book on ‘J2EE Architecture’ and also has written numerous articles on Java for various online Java forums like JavaWorld, java.net, DevX.com and internet.com. She can be reached at [email protected]

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@ThingsExpo Stories
"There's a growing demand from users for things to be faster. When you think about all the transactions or interactions users will have with your product and everything that is between those transactions and interactions - what drives us at Catchpoint Systems is the idea to measure that and to analyze it," explained Leo Vasiliou, Director of Web Performance Engineering at Catchpoint Systems, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York Ci...
I wanted to gather all of my Internet of Things (IOT) blogs into a single blog (that I could later use with my University of San Francisco (USF) Big Data “MBA” course). However as I started to pull these blogs together, I realized that my IOT discussion lacked a vision; it lacked an end point towards which an organization could drive their IOT envisioning, proof of value, app dev, data engineering and data science efforts. And I think that the IOT end point is really quite simple…
A critical component of any IoT project is what to do with all the data being generated. This data needs to be captured, processed, structured, and stored in a way to facilitate different kinds of queries. Traditional data warehouse and analytical systems are mature technologies that can be used to handle certain kinds of queries, but they are not always well suited to many problems, particularly when there is a need for real-time insights.
Big Data, cloud, analytics, contextual information, wearable tech, sensors, mobility, and WebRTC: together, these advances have created a perfect storm of technologies that are disrupting and transforming classic communications models and ecosystems. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Erik Perotti, Senior Manager of New Ventures on Plantronics’ Innovation team, provided an overview of this technological shift, including associated business and consumer communications impacts, and opportunities it ...
You think you know what’s in your data. But do you? Most organizations are now aware of the business intelligence represented by their data. Data science stands to take this to a level you never thought of – literally. The techniques of data science, when used with the capabilities of Big Data technologies, can make connections you had not yet imagined, helping you discover new insights and ask new questions of your data. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Sarbjit Sarkaria, data science team lead ...
Is your aging software platform suffering from technical debt while the market changes and demands new solutions at a faster clip? It’s a bold move, but you might consider walking away from your core platform and starting fresh. ReadyTalk did exactly that. In his General Session at 19th Cloud Expo, Michael Chambliss, Head of Engineering at ReadyTalk, will discuss why and how ReadyTalk diverted from healthy revenue and over a decade of audio conferencing product development to start an innovati...
Extracting business value from Internet of Things (IoT) data doesn’t happen overnight. There are several requirements that must be satisfied, including IoT device enablement, data analysis, real-time detection of complex events and automated orchestration of actions. Unfortunately, too many companies fall short in achieving their business goals by implementing incomplete solutions or not focusing on tangible use cases. In his general session at @ThingsExpo, Dave McCarthy, Director of Products...
WebRTC is bringing significant change to the communications landscape that will bridge the worlds of web and telephony, making the Internet the new standard for communications. Cloud9 took the road less traveled and used WebRTC to create a downloadable enterprise-grade communications platform that is changing the communication dynamic in the financial sector. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Leo Papadopoulos, CTO of Cloud9, discussed the importance of WebRTC and how it enables companies to focus...
SYS-CON Events announced today that 910Telecom will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Housed in the classic Denver Gas & Electric Building, 910 15th St., 910Telecom is a carrier-neutral telecom hotel located in the heart of Denver. Adjacent to CenturyLink, AT&T, and Denver Main, 910Telecom offers connectivity to all major carriers, Internet service providers, Internet backbones and ...
SYS-CON Events announced today that LeaseWeb USA, a cloud Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS) provider, will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. LeaseWeb is one of the world's largest hosting brands. The company helps customers define, develop and deploy IT infrastructure tailored to their exact business needs, by combining various kinds cloud solutions.
Manufacturers are embracing the Industrial Internet the same way consumers are leveraging Fitbits – to improve overall health and wellness. Both can provide consistent measurement, visibility, and suggest performance improvements customized to help reach goals. Fitbit users can view real-time data and make adjustments to increase their activity. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Mark Bernardo Professional Services Leader, Americas, at GE Digital, discussed how leveraging the Industrial Internet a...
The cloud market growth today is largely in public clouds. While there is a lot of spend in IT departments in virtualization, these aren’t yet translating into a true “cloud” experience within the enterprise. What is stopping the growth of the “private cloud” market? In his general session at 18th Cloud Expo, Nara Rajagopalan, CEO of Accelerite, explored the challenges in deploying, managing, and getting adoption for a private cloud within an enterprise. What are the key differences between wh...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Venafi, the Immune System for the Internet™ and the leading provider of Next Generation Trust Protection, will exhibit at @DevOpsSummit at 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Venafi is the Immune System for the Internet™ that protects the foundation of all cybersecurity – cryptographic keys and digital certificates – so they can’t be misused by bad guys in attacks...
The best-practices for building IoT applications with Go Code that attendees can use to build their own IoT applications. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Indraneel Mitra, Senior Solutions Architect & Technology Evangelist at Cognizant, provided valuable information and resources for both novice and experienced developers on how to get started with IoT and Golang in a day. He also provided information on how to use Intel Arduino Kit, Go Robotics API and AWS IoT stack to build an application tha...
Amazon has gradually rolled out parts of its IoT offerings in the last year, but these are just the tip of the iceberg. In addition to optimizing their back-end AWS offerings, Amazon is laying the ground work to be a major force in IoT – especially in the connected home and office. Amazon is extending its reach by building on its dominant Cloud IoT platform, its Dash Button strategy, recently announced Replenishment Services, the Echo/Alexa voice recognition control platform, the 6-7 strategic...
For basic one-to-one voice or video calling solutions, WebRTC has proven to be a very powerful technology. Although WebRTC’s core functionality is to provide secure, real-time p2p media streaming, leveraging native platform features and server-side components brings up new communication capabilities for web and native mobile applications, allowing for advanced multi-user use cases such as video broadcasting, conferencing, and media recording.
IoT generates lots of temporal data. But how do you unlock its value? You need to discover patterns that are repeatable in vast quantities of data, understand their meaning, and implement scalable monitoring across multiple data streams in order to monetize the discoveries and insights. Motif discovery and deep learning platforms are emerging to visualize sensor data, to search for patterns and to build application that can monitor real time streams efficiently. In his session at @ThingsExpo, ...
Verizon Communications Inc. (NYSE, Nasdaq: VZ) and Yahoo! Inc. (Nasdaq: YHOO) have entered into a definitive agreement under which Verizon will acquire Yahoo's operating business for approximately $4.83 billion in cash, subject to customary closing adjustments. Yahoo informs, connects and entertains a global audience of more than 1 billion monthly active users** -- including 600 million monthly active mobile users*** through its search, communications and digital content products. Yahoo also co...
There will be new vendors providing applications, middleware, and connected devices to support the thriving IoT ecosystem. This essentially means that electronic device manufacturers will also be in the software business. Many will be new to building embedded software or robust software. This creates an increased importance on software quality, particularly within the Industrial Internet of Things where business-critical applications are becoming dependent on products controlled by software. Qua...
In addition to all the benefits, IoT is also bringing new kind of customer experience challenges - cars that unlock themselves, thermostats turning houses into saunas and baby video monitors broadcasting over the internet. This list can only increase because while IoT services should be intuitive and simple to use, the delivery ecosystem is a myriad of potential problems as IoT explodes complexity. So finding a performance issue is like finding the proverbial needle in the haystack.