Welcome!

Industrial IoT Authors: Pat Romanski, Kevin Benedict, Liz McMillan, Elizabeth White, Scott Allen

Blog Feed Post

Give me a JWT, I’ll give you an Access Token

One of the common misconceptions about OAuth is that it provides identity federation by itself. Although supporting OAuth with federated identities is a valid pattern and is essential to many API providers, it does require the combination of OAuth with an additional federated authentication mechanism. Note that I’m not talking about leveraging OAuth for federation (that’s OpenID Connect), but rather, an OAuth handshake in which the OAuth Authorization Server (AS) federates the authentication of the user.

There are different ways to federate the authentication of an end user as part of an OAuth handshake. One approach is to simply incorporate it as part of the authorization server’s interaction with the end user (handshake within handshake). This is only possible with grant types where the user is redirected to the authorization server in the first place, such as implicit or autz code. In that case, the user is redirected from the app, to the authorization server, to the idp, back to the authorization server and finally back to the application. The federated authentication is transparent to the client application participating in the OAuth handshake. The OAuth spec (which describes the interaction between the client application and the OAuth Authorization Server) does not get involved.

illustration1

Another approach is for the client application to request the access token using an existing proof of authentication in the form of a signed claims (handshake after handshake). In this type of OAuth handshake, the redirection of the user (if any) is outside the scope of the OAuth handshake and is driven by the application. However, the exchange of the existing claim for an OAuth access token is the subject of a number of extension grant types.

One such extension grant type is defined in SAML 2.0 Bearer Assertion Profiles for OAuth 2.0 specification according to which a client application presents a SAML assertion to the OAuth authorization server in exchange for an OAuth access token. The Layer 7 OAuth Toolkit has implemented and provided samples for this extension grant type since its inception.

illustration2

Because of the prevalence of SAML in many environments and its support by many identity providers, this grant type has the potential to be leveraged in lots of ways in the Enterprise and across partners. There is however an alternative to bloated, verbose SAML assertions emerging, one that is more ‘API-friendly’, based on JSON: JSON Web Token (JWT). JWT allows the representation of claims in a compact, JSON format and the signing of such claims using JWS. For example, OpenID Connect’s ID Tokens are based on the JWT standard. The same way that a SAML assertion can be exchanged for an access token, a JWT can also be exchanged for an access token. The details of such a handshake is defined as part of another extension grant type defined as part of JSON Web Token (JWT) Bearer Token Profiles for OAuth 2.0.

Give me a JWT, I’ll give you an access token. Although I expect templates for this extension grant type to be featured as part of an upcoming revision of the OAuth Toolkit, the recent addition of JWT and JSON primitives enables me to extend the current OAuth authorization server template to support JWT Bearer Grants with the Layer 7 Gateway today.

The first thing I need for this exercise is to simulate an application getting a JWT claim issued on behalf of a user. For this, I create a simple endpoint on the Gateway that authenticates a user and issues a JWT returned as part of the response.

idppolicy

Pointing my browser to this endpoint produces the following output:

idoutput

Then, I extend the Authorization Server token endpoint policy to accept and support the JWT bearer grant type. The similarities between the SAML bearer and the JWT bearer grant types are most obvious in this step. I was able to copy the policy branch and substitute the SAML and XPath policy constructs for JWT and JSON path ones instead. I can also base trust on HMAC type signatures that involve a share secret instead of a PKI based signature validation if desired.

newAS

I can test this new grant type using REST client calling the OAuth Authorization Server’s token endpoint. I inject in this request the JWT issued by the JWT issuer endpoint and specify the correct grant type.

illustration5

I can now authorize an API call based on this new access token as I would any other access token. The original JWT claim is saved as part of the OAuth session and is available throughout the lifespan of this access token. This JWT can later be consulted at runtime when API calls are authorized inside the API runtime policy.


Read the original blog entry...

More Stories By Francois Lascelles

As Layer 7’s Chief Architect, Francois Lascelles guides the solutions architecture team and aligns product evolution with field trends. Francois joined Layer 7 in the company’s infancy – contributing as the first developer and designing the foundation of Layer 7’s Gateway technology. Now in a field-facing role, Francois helps enterprise architects apply the latest standards and patterns. Francois is a regular blogger and speaker and is also co-author of Service-Oriented Infrastructure: On-Premise and in the Cloud, published by Prentice Hall. Francois holds a Bachelor of Engineering degree from Ecole Polytechnique de Montreal and a black belt in OAuth. Follow Francois on Twitter: @flascelles

@ThingsExpo Stories
Fifty billion connected devices and still no winning protocols standards. HTTP, WebSockets, MQTT, and CoAP seem to be leading in the IoT protocol race at the moment but many more protocols are getting introduced on a regular basis. Each protocol has its pros and cons depending on the nature of the communications. Does there really need to be only one protocol to rule them all? Of course not. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Chris Matthieu, co-founder and CTO of Octoblu, walk you through how Oct...
The Jevons Paradox suggests that when technological advances increase efficiency of a resource, it results in an overall increase in consumption. Writing on the increased use of coal as a result of technological improvements, 19th-century economist William Stanley Jevons found that these improvements led to the development of new ways to utilize coal. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Mark Thiele, Chief Strategy Officer for Apcera, will compare the Jevons Paradox to modern-day enterprise IT, e...
Complete Internet of Things (IoT) embedded device security is not just about the device but involves the entire product’s identity, data and control integrity, and services traversing the cloud. A device can no longer be looked at as an island; it is a part of a system. In fact, given the cross-domain interactions enabled by IoT it could be a part of many systems. Also, depending on where the device is deployed, for example, in the office building versus a factory floor or oil field, security ha...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Bsquare has been named “Silver Sponsor” of SYS-CON's @ThingsExpo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. For more than two decades, Bsquare has helped its customers extract business value from a broad array of physical assets by making them intelligent, connecting them, and using the data they generate to optimize business processes.
Identity is in everything and customers are looking to their providers to ensure the security of their identities, transactions and data. With the increased reliance on cloud-based services, service providers must build security and trust into their offerings, adding value to customers and improving the user experience. Making identity, security and privacy easy for customers provides a unique advantage over the competition.
There are several IoTs: the Industrial Internet, Consumer Wearables, Wearables and Healthcare, Supply Chains, and the movement toward Smart Grids, Cities, Regions, and Nations. There are competing communications standards every step of the way, a bewildering array of sensors and devices, and an entire world of competing data analytics platforms. To some this appears to be chaos. In this power panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, Bradley Holt, Developer Advocate a...
If you’re responsible for an application that depends on the data or functionality of various IoT endpoints – either sensors or devices – your brand reputation depends on the security, reliability, and compliance of its many integrated parts. If your application fails to deliver the expected business results, your customers and partners won't care if that failure stems from the code you developed or from a component that you integrated. What can you do to ensure that the endpoints work as expect...
So, you bought into the current machine learning craze and went on to collect millions/billions of records from this promising new data source. Now, what do you do with them? Too often, the abundance of data quickly turns into an abundance of problems. How do you extract that "magic essence" from your data without falling into the common pitfalls? In her session at @ThingsExpo, Natalia Ponomareva, Software Engineer at Google, provided tips on how to be successful in large scale machine learning...
If you had a chance to enter on the ground level of the largest e-commerce market in the world – would you? China is the world’s most populated country with the second largest economy and the world’s fastest growing market. It is estimated that by 2018 the Chinese market will be reaching over $30 billion in gaming revenue alone. Admittedly for a foreign company, doing business in China can be challenging. Often changing laws, administrative regulations and the often inscrutable Chinese Interne...
In his general session at 18th Cloud Expo, Lee Atchison, Principal Cloud Architect and Advocate at New Relic, discussed cloud as a ‘better data center’ and how it adds new capacity (faster) and improves application availability (redundancy). The cloud is a ‘Dynamic Tool for Dynamic Apps’ and resource allocation is an integral part of your application architecture, so use only the resources you need and allocate /de-allocate resources on the fly.
Enterprise IT has been in the era of Hybrid Cloud for some time now. But it seems most conversations about Hybrid are focused on integrating AWS, Microsoft Azure, or Google ECM into existing on-premises systems. Where is all the Private Cloud? What do technology providers need to do to make their offerings more compelling? How should enterprise IT executives and buyers define their focus, needs, and roadmap, and communicate that clearly to the providers?
SYS-CON Events announced today that Commvault, a global leader in enterprise data protection and information management, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Commvault is a leading provider of data protection and information management solutions, helping companies worldwide activate their data to drive more value and business insight and to transform moder...
The many IoT deployments around the world are busy integrating smart devices and sensors into their enterprise IT infrastructures. Yet all of this technology – and there are an amazing number of choices – is of no use without the software to gather, communicate, and analyze the new data flows. Without software, there is no IT. In this power panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists will look at the protocols that communicate data and the emerging data analy...
Digital innovation is the next big wave of business transformation based on digital technologies of which IoT and Big Data are key components, For example: Business boundary innovation is a challenge to excavate third-party business value using IoT and BigData, like Nest Business structure innovation may propose re-building business structure from scratch, as Uber does in the taxicab industry The social model innovation is also a big challenge to the new social architecture with the design fr...
Is your aging software platform suffering from technical debt while the market changes and demands new solutions at a faster clip? It’s a bold move, but you might consider walking away from your core platform and starting fresh. ReadyTalk did exactly that. In his General Session at 19th Cloud Expo, Michael Chambliss, Head of Engineering at ReadyTalk, will discuss why and how ReadyTalk diverted from healthy revenue and over a decade of audio conferencing product development to start an innovati...
Data is an unusual currency; it is not restricted by the same transactional limitations as money or people. In fact, the more that you leverage your data across multiple business use cases, the more valuable it becomes to the organization. And the same can be said about the organization’s analytics. In his session at 19th Cloud Expo, Bill Schmarzo, CTO for the Big Data Practice at EMC, will introduce a methodology for capturing, enriching and sharing data (and analytics) across the organizati...
IoT is fundamentally transforming the auto industry, turning the vehicle into a hub for connected services, including safety, infotainment and usage-based insurance. Auto manufacturers – and businesses across all verticals – have built an entire ecosystem around the Connected Car, creating new customer touch points and revenue streams. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Macario Namie, Head of IoT Strategy at Cisco Jasper, will share real-world examples of how IoT transforms the car from a static p...
There is little doubt that Big Data solutions will have an increasing role in the Enterprise IT mainstream over time. Big Data at Cloud Expo - to be held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA - has announced its Call for Papers is open. Cloud computing is being adopted in one form or another by 94% of enterprises today. Tens of billions of new devices are being connected to The Internet of Things. And Big Data is driving this bus. An exponential increase is...
SYS-CON Events has announced today that Roger Strukhoff has been named conference chair of Cloud Expo and @ThingsExpo 2016 Silicon Valley. The 19th Cloud Expo and 6th @ThingsExpo will take place on November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. "The Internet of Things brings trillions of dollars of opportunity to developers and enterprise IT, no matter how you measure it," stated Roger Strukhoff. "More importantly, it leverages the power of devices and the Interne...
Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with the 19th International Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world and ThingsExpo Silicon Valley Call for Papers is now open.