Welcome!

Industrial IoT Authors: Yeshim Deniz, Elizabeth White, SmartBear Blog, Liz McMillan, Pat Romanski

Related Topics: Java IoT, Industrial IoT

Java IoT: Article

How OpenKM's Technical Debt Decreased by 49% Through Code Refactoring

Initial Technical Debt of the project reduced from 84 to 42 days of remediation

Technical Debt is worth nothing if no pragmatic action is taken into code, in order to control and tackle it. To ilustrate the Scertify's capability to automatically correct code defects that increase this unintended debt, we performed code refactoring on OpenKM, an Free/Libre document management system. The initial Technical Debt of the project has been reduced by 49.2% from 84 days to 42 days. Here, at Tocea, we call it the Debt Write-Off.

For this first Debt Write-Off, we have decided to perform the refactoring of OpenKM (6.2.1-DEV).

According to Wikipedia, OpenKM is a Free/Libre document management system that provides a web interface for managing arbitrary files. OpenKM is a great tool but an audit of the code revealed some technical debt problems. That was a good opportunity to use Scertify and to be useful to an open-source community. The application consists mainly in 200K lines of code of Java. There is also Javascript, JSP, CSS... but we focus here on the Java code.

Technical debt before refactoring

Scertify Refactoring Assessment allows us to estimate the technical debt of the application. As you can see on screenshot #1, it is estimated to 84 days. This is the time needed to correct manually each error. This number only includes the time needed to make the change on the code, it does not include things like finding the file, understanding the problem, etc.

Of this 84 days, 60 represent errors that can be automatically refactored, thus taking nearly zero effort to correct.

We can take a closer look on the possibilities of automation (screenshot #2). Not all rules are currently implemented in Scertify, but we are working on it. For this project, we chose 7 rules that seemed particularly interesting.

Rules used for the refactoring

Here's a presentation of the rules used to perform the refactoring of OpenKM.

  • AvoidPrintStackTrace

    This rule reports a violation when it finds a code that catch an expression and print its stack trace to the standard error output. A logging framework should be used instead, in order to improve application's maintainability.
    The refactoring replace a call to print stack trace by a call to a logging framework. The rule can also declare the logger in the class and make the required imports. The rule can be configured to use the user's favorite framework.

    Here's the configuration used for OpenKM:

    • The logger call to use: "log.error({0}.getMessage(), {0})" {0} is replaced by the exception.
    • Do not refactor calls of printStackTrace to other IO (a file, a stream...)
    • Make logger declaration when it's needed (ie: log is not already declared in class).
    • The logger declaration to use : "private static Logger log = LoggerFactory.getLogger({0}.class);"
    • The required imports : "org.slf4j.LoggerFactory,org.slf4j.Logger"

    Original code :

    view source print? 1.catch(FileNotFoundExceptione){ e.printStackTrace(); }
  • Refactored code :

    view source print? 1.catch(FileNotFoundExceptione){ log.error(e.getMessage(),e); }
  • AddEmptyStringToConvert

    Using the concatenation of an empty string to convert a primitive type to a String is a bad practice. First of all, it makes the code less readable. It is also less efficient in most cases (the only case where the string concatenation is slightly better is when the primitive is final).

    Original code:

    view source print? 1.UserActivity.log(session.getUserID(), "DELETE_PROCESS_DEFINITION",""+processDefinitionId, null,null);

    Refactored code:

    view source print? 1.UserActivity.log(session.getUserID(), "DELETE_PROCESS_DEFINITION", String.valueOf(processDefinitionId),null,null);
  • InefficientConstructorCall

    Calling the constructor of a wrapper type, like Integer, to convert a primitive type is a bad practice. It is less efficient than calling the static method valueOf.

    Original code:

    view source print? 1.users.put(usersRead[i].getString(), newInteger(Permission.READ));

    Refactored code:

    view source print? 1.users.put(usersRead[i].getString(), newInteger(Permission.READ));
  • IfElseStmtsMustUseBraces

    This rule finds if statements that don't use braces. The refactoring adds required braces.

  • PositionLiteralsFirstInComparisonsRefactor

    This rule checks that literals are in the first position in comparisons. The following code is a violation :

    Original code:

    view source print? 1.if(action.equals("ruleList"))

    Refactored code:

    view source print? 1.if("ruleList".equals(action))

    The refactoring invert the literal and the variable. This ensures that the code cannot crash due to the variable being a null pointer.

  • MethodArgumentCouldBeFinal

    This method flags method's arguments that could be declared final and are not. The use of the final keyword is a useful information for future code readers.

  • LocalVariableCouldBeFinal

    The purpose is the same as the previous rule, except that it treats local variable and not arguments. These two rules are not critical, but since they have a huge number of violations, it is useful to get rid of them quickly with automatic refactoring.

We are now ready to perform the refactoring with Scertify.

    The refactoring process

    The refactoring process consists of two steps :

  1. Configure a xml rule repository: The first step is crucial. As we have seen in previous section, some rules need to be configured to be useful. However, it shouldn't take more than half an hour.
  2. Run Scertify to perform the refactoring: The second step is just a command line invocation, where you specify the project to refactor and the rule repository to use.

For this project of 200K lines of code, the refactoring took 2 minute. You can check the process on a smaller project in this video tutorial.

Technical debt after refactoring
Screenshot #3 is the analysis of the refactored project by Scertify Refactoring Assessment. As you can see, 24 days of technical debt have been erased.

Screenshot #4 and #5 show the difference of violations in Sonar between the original and the refactored project.

Here's the number of violations that have been corrected for each rule (*) :

  • AddEmptyStringToConvert: 232
  • AvoidPrintStackTrace: 70
  • InefficientConstructorCall: 43
  • IFElseStmtsMustUseBraces: 411
  • PositionLiteralsFirstInComparisons: 358
  • MethodArgumentCouldBeFinal: 8848
  • LocalVariableCouldBeFinal : 7622

To sum up, with Scertify we've been able to correct quickly a huge number of errors. Some of them are not critical (like MethodArgumentCouldBeFinal) but we've also been able to refactor more evolved errors like AvoidPrintStackTrace, AddEmptyStringToConvert,...

Download the source files

(*) if you do the math, you'll see that more errors have been corrected. It's due to side effects of the refactoring (correcting a rule can remove violations of other rules) and also because we manually corrected few things in the code.

Submit your project for a Debt Write-Off

If you're interested in submitting your project to the next Debt Write-off, or just give some valuable feedback... Please contact us on Twitter: @Scertify

More Stories By Michael Muller

Michael Muller, a Marketing Manager at Tocea, has 10+ years of experience as a Marketing and Communication Manager. He specializes in technology and innovative companies. He is executive editor at http://dsisionnel.com, a French IT magazine and the creator of http://d8p.it, a cool URL shortener. Dad of two kids.

@ThingsExpo Stories
SYS-CON Events announced today that Peak 10, Inc., a national IT infrastructure and cloud services provider, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Peak 10 provides reliable, tailored data center and network services, cloud and managed services. Its solutions are designed to scale and adapt to customers’ changing business needs, enabling them to lower costs, improve performance and focus intern...
A strange thing is happening along the way to the Internet of Things, namely far too many devices to work with and manage. It has become clear that we'll need much higher efficiency user experiences that can allow us to more easily and scalably work with the thousands of devices that will soon be in each of our lives. Enter the conversational interface revolution, combining bots we can literally talk with, gesture to, and even direct with our thoughts, with embedded artificial intelligence, whic...
Everywhere we turn in our industry we can find strong opinions about the direction, type and nature of cloud’s impact on computing and business. Another word that is used in every context in our industry is “hybrid.” In his session at 20th Cloud Expo, Alvaro Gonzalez, Director of Technical, Partner and Field Marketing at Peak 10, will use a combination of a few conceptual props and some research recently commissioned by Peak 10 to offer a real-world consideration of how the various categories of...
In order to meet the rapidly changing demands of today’s customers, companies are continually forced to redefine their business strategies in order to meet these needs, stay relevant and continue to see profitable growth. IoT deployment and development is integral in this transformation, and today businesses are increasingly seeing the value of investing their resources into IoT deployments. These technologies are able increase ROI through projects such as connecting supply chains or enabling sm...
SYS-CON Events announced today that SoftLayer, an IBM Company, has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 18th Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York, New York. SoftLayer, an IBM Company, provides cloud infrastructure as a service from a growing number of data centers and network points of presence around the world. SoftLayer’s customers range from Web startups to global enterprises.
Multiple data types are pouring into IoT deployments. Data is coming in small packages as well as enormous files and data streams of many sizes. Widespread use of mobile devices adds to the total. In this power panel at @ThingsExpo, moderated by Conference Chair Roger Strukhoff, panelists will look at the tools and environments that are being put to use in IoT deployments, as well as the team skills a modern enterprise IT shop needs to keep things running, get a handle on all this data, and deli...
With major technology companies and startups seriously embracing Cloud strategies, now is the perfect time to attend @CloudExpo | @ThingsExpo, June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY and October 31 - November 2, 2017, Santa Clara Convention Center, CA. Learn what is going on, contribute to the discussions, and ensure that your enterprise is on the right path to Digital Transformation.
Five years ago development was seen as a dead-end career, now it’s anything but – with an explosion in mobile and IoT initiatives increasing the demand for skilled engineers. But apart from having a ready supply of great coders, what constitutes true ‘DevOps Royalty’? It’ll be the ability to craft resilient architectures, supportability, security everywhere across the software lifecycle. In his keynote at @DevOpsSummit at 20th Cloud Expo, Jeffrey Scheaffer, GM and SVP, Continuous Delivery Busine...
SYS-CON Events announced today that delaPlex will exhibit at SYS-CON's @CloudExpo, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. delaPlex pioneered Software Development as a Service (SDaaS), which provides scalable resources to build, test, and deploy software. It’s a fast and more reliable way to develop a new product or expand your in-house team.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Carbonite will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Carbonite protects your entire IT footprint with the right level of protection for each workload, ensuring lower costs and dependable solutions with DoubleTake and Evault.
SYS-CON Events announced today that EARP Integration will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. EARP Integration is a passionate software house. Since its inception in 2009 the company successfully delivers smart solutions for cities and factories that start their digital transformation. EARP provides bespoke solutions like, for example, advanced enterprise portals, business intelligence systems an...
SYS-CON Events announced today that delaPlex will exhibit at SYS-CON's @ThingsExpo, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. delaPlex pioneered Software Development as a Service (SDaaS), which provides scalable resources to build, test, and deploy software. It’s a fast and more reliable way to develop a new product or expand your in-house team.
Amazon started as an online bookseller 20 years ago. Since then, it has evolved into a technology juggernaut that has disrupted multiple markets and industries and touches many aspects of our lives. It is a relentless technology and business model innovator driving disruption throughout numerous ecosystems. Amazon’s AWS revenues alone are approaching $16B a year making it one of the largest IT companies in the world. With dominant offerings in Cloud, IoT, eCommerce, Big Data, AI, Digital Assis...
Detecting internal user threats in the Big Data eco-system is challenging and cumbersome. Many organizations monitor internal usage of the Big Data eco-system using a set of alerts. This is not a scalable process given the increase in the number of alerts with the accelerating growth in data volume and user base. Organizations are increasingly leveraging machine learning to monitor only those data elements that are sensitive and critical, autonomously establish monitoring policies, and to detect...
We build IoT infrastructure products - when you have to integrate different devices, different systems and cloud you have to build an application to do that but we eliminate the need to build an application. Our products can integrate any device, any system, any cloud regardless of protocol," explained Peter Jung, Chief Product Officer at Pulzze Systems, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at @ThingsExpo, held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA
SYS-CON Events announced today that Outscale will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Outscale's technology makes an automated and adaptable Cloud available to businesses, supporting them in the most complex IT projects while controlling their operational aspects. You boost your IT infrastructure's reactivity, with request responses that only take a few seconds.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Progress, a global leader in application development, has been named “Bronze Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Enterprises today are rapidly adopting the cloud, while continuing to retain business-critical/sensitive data inside the firewall. This is creating two separate data silos – one inside the firewall and the other outside the firewall. Cloud ISVs oft...
DevOps at Cloud Expo – being held October 31 - November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA – announces that its Call for Papers is open. Born out of proven success in agile development, cloud computing, and process automation, DevOps is a macro trend you cannot afford to miss. From showcase success stories from early adopters and web-scale businesses, DevOps is expanding to organizations of all sizes, including the world's largest enterprises – and delivering real r...
As cloud adoption continues to transform business, today's global enterprises are challenged with managing a growing amount of information living outside of the data center. The rapid adoption of IoT and increasingly mobile workforce are exacerbating the problem. Ensuring secure data sharing and efficient backup poses capacity and bandwidth considerations as well as policy and regulatory compliance issues.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Cloud Academy will exhibit at SYS-CON's 20th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 6-8, 2017, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Cloud Academy is the industry’s most innovative, vendor-neutral cloud technology training platform. Cloud Academy provides continuous learning solutions for individuals and enterprise teams for Amazon Web Services, Microsoft Azure, Google Cloud Platform, and the most popular cloud computing technologies. Ge...