Welcome!

Industrial IoT Authors: Pat Romanski, Elizabeth White, Liz McMillan, Jeev Trika, Scott Allen

Related Topics: Java IoT, IoT User Interface

Java IoT: Article

The Cost of an Exception

A closer look at the costs of throwing exceptions

Recently there was a bigger discussion at dynaTrace around the cost of exceptions. When working with customers we very often find a lot of exceptions they are not aware of. After removing these exceptions, the code runs significantly faster than before. This creates the assumption that using exceptions in your code comes with a significant performance overhead. The implication would be that you better avoid using exceptions. As exceptions are an important construct for handling error situation, avoiding exceptions completely does not seem to be good solution. All in all this was reason enough to have a closer look at the costs of throwing exceptions.

The Experiment
I based my experiment on a simple piece of code that randomly throws an exception. This is not a really scientifically-profound measurement and we also don’t know what the HotSpot compiler does with the code as it runs. Nevertheless it should provide us with some basic insights.

public class ExceptionTest {

public long maxLevel = 20;

public static void main (String ... args){

ExceptionTest test = new ExceptionTest();

long start = System.currentTimeMillis();
int count = 10000;
for (int i= 0; i < count; i++){
try {
test.doTest(2, 0);
}catch (Exception ex){
//        ex.getStackTrace();
}
}
long diff = System.currentTimeMillis() - start;
System.out.println(String.format("Average time for invocation: %1$.5f",((double) diff)/count));
}

public void doTest (int i, int level){
if (level < maxLevel){
try {
doTest (i, ++level);
}
catch (Exception ex){
//        ex.getStackTrace();
throw new RuntimeException ("UUUPS", ex);
}
}
else {
if (i > 1) {
throw new RuntimeException("Ups".substring(0, 3));
}
}
}
}

The Result
The result was very interesting. The cost of throwing and catching an exception seems to be rather low. In my sample it was about 0.002ms per Exception. This can more or less be neglected unless you really throw too many exceptions – and too many means we are talking about 100.000 or more.

While these results show that exception handling itself is not affecting code performance, it leaves open the question: what is responsible for the huge performance impact of exceptions? So obviously I was missing something – something important.

After thinking about it again, I realized that I was missing an important part of exception handling. I missed out the part on what you do when exceptions occur. In most cases you – hopefully – do not just catch the exception and that’s it. Normally you try to compensate for the problem and keep the application functioning for your end users. So the point I was missing was the compensation code that is executed for handling an exception. Depending on what this code is doing the performance penalty can become quite significant. In some cases this might mean retrying to connect to a server in other cases it might mean using a default fallback solution that is providing a far less-performing solution.

While this seemed to be a good explanation for the behavior we saw in many scenarios, I thought I am not done yet with the analysis. I had the feeling that there is something else that I was missing here.

Stack Traces
Still curious about this problem I looked into how the situation changes when I collect stack traces. This is what very often happens. You log an exception and its stack trace to try to figure out what the problem is.

I therefore modified my code to now get the stack trace of an exception as well. This changed the situation dramatically. Getting the stack trace of an exception had a 10x higher impact on the performance than just catching and throwing them. So while stack traces help to understand where and possibly also why a problem occurred, they come with a performance penalty.

The impact here is often very high as we are not talking about a single stack trace. In most cases exceptions are thrown – and caught – at multiple levels. Let us look at a simple example of a Web Service client connecting to a server. First there is an exception at the Java library level for the failed connection. Then there is a framework exception for the failed client and then there might be an application-level exception that some business logic invocation failed. This now sums up to three stack traces being collected.

In most cases you should see them in your log files or application output. Writing these potentially long stack traces again comes with some performance impact. At least you normally see and you can react to them if you look at your log files regularly – which is something you do, don’t you? ;-)

In some cases I have seen even worse behavior due to some incorrect logging code. Instead of checking whether a certain log level is enabled by calling log.isxxEnabled () first, developers just call logging methods. When this happens, logging code is always executed including getting stack traces of exceptions. As the log level however is set too low they never show up anywhere you might not even be aware of them. Checking for log levels first should be a general rule as it also avoids unnecessary object creation.

Conclusion
Not using exceptions because of their potential performance impact is a bad idea. Exceptions help to provide a uniform way to cope with runtime problems and they help to write clean code. You however need to trace the number of exceptions that are thrown in your code. Although they might be caught they can still have a significant performance impact. In dynaTrace we, by default, track thrown exceptions – and in many cases people are surprised by what is going on in their code and what the performance impact is in resolving them.

While exception usage is good you should avoid capturing too many stack traces. In many cases they are not even necessary to understand the problem – especially if they cover a problem you already expect. The exception message therefore might prove as being enough information. I get enough out of a Connection refused message so I do not need the full stack trace into the internal of the java.net call stack.

Related reading:

  1. Application Performance Monitoring in production – A Step-by-Step Guide – Part 1 // Setting up Application Performance Monitoring is a big task,...
  2. The impact of Garbage Collection on Java performance // In my last post I explained what a major...
  3. Top 10 Performance Problems taken from Zappos, Monster, Thomson and Co For a recent edition of the Swiss Computerworld Magazine we...
  4. Top 10 Client-Side Performance Problems in Web 2.0 Inspired by the Top 10 Performance Problems post which focuses...
  5. Real Life Ajax Troubleshooting Guide One of our clients occasionally runs into the following problem...

 

More Stories By Alois Reitbauer

Alois Reitbauer is Chief Technical Strategist at Dynatrace. He has spent most of his career building monitoring tools and fine-tuning application performance. A regular conference speaker, blogger, author, and sushi maniac, Alois currently shares his professional time between Linz, Boston, and San Francisco.

@ThingsExpo Stories
SYS-CON Events announced today Telecom Reseller has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Telecom Reseller reports on Unified Communications, UCaaS, BPaaS for enterprise and SMBs. They report extensively on both customer premises based solutions such as IP-PBX as well as cloud based and hosted platforms.
SYS-CON Events announced today that Venafi, the Immune System for the Internet™ and the leading provider of Next Generation Trust Protection, will exhibit at @DevOpsSummit at 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Venafi is the Immune System for the Internet™ that protects the foundation of all cybersecurity – cryptographic keys and digital certificates – so they can’t be misused by bad guys in attacks...
Pulzze Systems was happy to participate in such a premier event and thankful to be receiving the winning investment and global network support from G-Startup Worldwide. It is an exciting time for Pulzze to showcase the effectiveness of innovative technologies and enable them to make the world smarter and better. The reputable contest is held to identify promising startups around the globe that are assured to change the world through their innovative products and disruptive technologies. There w...
Smart Cities are here to stay, but for their promise to be delivered, the data they produce must not be put in new siloes. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Mathias Herberts, Co-founder and CTO of Cityzen Data, will deep dive into best practices that will ensure a successful smart city journey.
The 19th International Cloud Expo has announced that its Call for Papers is open. Cloud Expo, to be held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, brings together Cloud Computing, Big Data, Internet of Things, DevOps, Digital Transformation, Microservices and WebRTC to one location. With cloud computing driving a higher percentage of enterprise IT budgets every year, it becomes increasingly important to plant your flag in this fast-expanding business opportuni...
DevOps at Cloud Expo, taking place Nov 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 19th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The widespread success of cloud computing is driving the DevOps revolution in enterprise IT. Now as never before, development teams must communicate and collaborate in a dynamic, 24/7/365 environment. There is no time to wait for long dev...
In today's uber-connected, consumer-centric, cloud-enabled, insights-driven, multi-device, global world, the focus of solutions has shifted from the product that is sold to the person who is buying the product or service. Enterprises have rebranded their business around the consumers of their products. The buyer is the person and the focus is not on the offering. The person is connected through multiple devices, wearables, at home, on the road, and in multiple locations, sometimes simultaneously...
Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 19th Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the most profound change in personal and enterprise IT since the creation of the Worldwide Web more than 20 years ago. All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devices - comp...
For basic one-to-one voice or video calling solutions, WebRTC has proven to be a very powerful technology. Although WebRTC’s core functionality is to provide secure, real-time p2p media streaming, leveraging native platform features and server-side components brings up new communication capabilities for web and native mobile applications, allowing for advanced multi-user use cases such as video broadcasting, conferencing, and media recording.
Data is the fuel that drives the machine learning algorithmic engines and ultimately provides the business value. In his session at Cloud Expo, Ed Featherston, a director and senior enterprise architect at Collaborative Consulting, will discuss the key considerations around quality, volume, timeliness, and pedigree that must be dealt with in order to properly fuel that engine.
SYS-CON Events announced today that 910Telecom will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Housed in the classic Denver Gas & Electric Building, 910 15th St., 910Telecom is a carrier-neutral telecom hotel located in the heart of Denver. Adjacent to CenturyLink, AT&T, and Denver Main, 910Telecom offers connectivity to all major carriers, Internet service providers, Internet backbones and ...
Amazon has gradually rolled out parts of its IoT offerings in the last year, but these are just the tip of the iceberg. In addition to optimizing their back-end AWS offerings, Amazon is laying the ground work to be a major force in IoT – especially in the connected home and office. Amazon is extending its reach by building on its dominant Cloud IoT platform, its Dash Button strategy, recently announced Replenishment Services, the Echo/Alexa voice recognition control platform, the 6-7 strategic...
19th Cloud Expo, taking place November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy. Meanwhile, 94% of enterpri...
Akana has announced the availability of version 8 of its API Management solution. The Akana Platform provides an end-to-end API Management solution for designing, implementing, securing, managing, monitoring, and publishing APIs. It is available as a SaaS platform, on-premises, and as a hybrid deployment. Version 8 introduces a lot of new functionality, all aimed at offering customers the richest API Management capabilities in a way that is easier than ever for API and app developers to use.
Personalization has long been the holy grail of marketing. Simply stated, communicate the most relevant offer to the right person and you will increase sales. To achieve this, you must understand the individual. Consequently, digital marketers developed many ways to gather and leverage customer information to deliver targeted experiences. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Lou Casal, Founder and Principal Consultant at Practicala, discussed how the Internet of Things (IoT) has accelerated our abil...
With so much going on in this space you could be forgiven for thinking you were always working with yesterday’s technologies. So much change, so quickly. What do you do if you have to build a solution from the ground up that is expected to live in the field for at least 5-10 years? This is the challenge we faced when we looked to refresh our existing 10-year-old custom hardware stack to measure the fullness of trash cans and compactors.
The emerging Internet of Everything creates tremendous new opportunities for customer engagement and business model innovation. However, enterprises must overcome a number of critical challenges to bring these new solutions to market. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Michael Martin, CTO/CIO at nfrastructure, outlined these key challenges and recommended approaches for overcoming them to achieve speed and agility in the design, development and implementation of Internet of Everything solutions wi...
Cloud computing is being adopted in one form or another by 94% of enterprises today. Tens of billions of new devices are being connected to The Internet of Things. And Big Data is driving this bus. An exponential increase is expected in the amount of information being processed, managed, analyzed, and acted upon by enterprise IT. This amazing is not part of some distant future - it is happening today. One report shows a 650% increase in enterprise data by 2020. Other estimates are even higher....
I wanted to gather all of my Internet of Things (IOT) blogs into a single blog (that I could later use with my University of San Francisco (USF) Big Data “MBA” course). However as I started to pull these blogs together, I realized that my IOT discussion lacked a vision; it lacked an end point towards which an organization could drive their IOT envisioning, proof of value, app dev, data engineering and data science efforts. And I think that the IOT end point is really quite simple…
"My role is working with customers, helping them go through this digital transformation. I spend a lot of time talking to banks, big industries, manufacturers working through how they are integrating and transforming their IT platforms and moving them forward," explained William Morrish, General Manager Product Sales at Interoute, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.