Welcome!

Industrial IoT Authors: Stackify Blog, Liz McMillan, Derek Weeks, Elizabeth White, Kevin Benedict

Related Topics: Industrial IoT

Industrial IoT: Article

What Is XLIFF and Why Should I Use It?

A brief overview of the XML Localization Interchange File Format (XLIFF)

The attributes of the trans-unit element can be used to store data about the resource being translated. Note that the id tag in a trans-unit identifies the trans-unit relative to the XLIFF file, and does not represent the native resource id. The resname tag stores the native resource id.

The XLIFF sample code below represents a cancel button. Using this information, a localization resource editor can render the button or windows resource, which can then be visually represented in a WYSIWYG editor.

<trans-unit id='1' resname='IDCANCEL' restype='button' coord='8;8;50;14'>
   <source xml:lang='en'>Cancel</source>
</trans-unit>

Logically or structurally related trans-unit elements can be grouped together using the group element. An example of where this is useful is representing a dialog box as a group of trans-units that contain its individual components.

bin-unit
The bin-unit is used to store nontextual data such as icons, cursors, or images. The objects can be stored as a reference to an external file or embedded internally within the XLIFF document itself. When stored as an external file reference, the bin-unit contains the address where the file is found. The binary file can also be embedded within the bin-unit as base-64 encoded data.

If there is localizable text associated with the binary object, it can be stored in one or more trans-unit elements contained within the bin-unit.

context-group/context
The context-group element and its child context provide a method for storing resource metadata related to the trans-unit. This structure keeps track of vital information that may be used to rebuild the content into its native format, or to identify resource-related content such as custom control class names or related properties.

Listing 3 shows how to represent PO (portable object) files when the translation unit occurs in multiple positions within a file. In the example, we use context-group elements to represent each individual position.

Extensibility
One of the major initiatives within XLIFF 1.1 is the use of XML schema namespaces to allow XLIFF to be embedded within another XML document or for XLIFF to be extended with another namespace. A company might have an XML application that meets their needs in all areas except localization. A small section of XLIFF could be embedded within this file to deal with that. It is also possible to embed a section of another XML vocabulary at particular extension points within an XML document.

Listing 4 shows an example of how an XLIFF document could be extended. The "mysc" elements are embedded within the XLIFF document and are identified by its namespace.

Alternate Translations
The alt-trans element is used to store alternative translations. This could be Translation Memory, Machine Translation, a previous translation, or a previous translation in a different dialect than the current target language. An example of where you would store a different dialect would be where you have translated an English document to French Canadian and you previously have a French translation. The XLIFF file would have English as the source language and French Canadian as the target language, but you can provide the French translation as the alternative translation in the alt-trans element.

The example below illustrates a previous translation of similar text is available and the alt-trans element, with this translation, is placed within the trans-unit.

<trans-unit>
   <source xml:lang="en-US">We are testing XLIFF.</source>
   <target state="needs-review-translation" xml:lang="fr-CA>Nous testons
XLIFF.</target>
   <alt-trans>
    <target xml:lang="fr-FR">Nous testons.</target>
   <alt-trans>
</trans-unit>

Version Control
Within an XLIFF document, it is possible to keep track of what is happening with the use of the phase element. This can be used for version control where different versions of the translation are stored in the alt-trans element, or it can used to provide other control data.

The phase element is used inside the header element and this provides the details of a particular phase. Information such as what was done to a segment with a particular tool can be tracked here.

<header>
  <phase-group>
   <phase phase-name='trans' process-name='translation' tool='Trados'
   date='2005-04-01T20:01:23Z'/>
   <phase phase-name='edit' process-name='editing' tool='Trados'
   date='2005-04-01T20:01:23Z'/>
  </phase-group>
</header>

A target element can be associated with a particular phase. In the example below, we have used the phase element to show that the target element introduced during the phase labelled "trans." Details of this phase would be specified in the header section.

<trans-unit>    <source xml:lang="en-US">We are testing XLIFF.</source>    <target xml:lang="fr">Nous testons XLIFF.</target>    <alt-trans>     <source xml:lang="fr">We are testing.</source>     <target xml:lang="fr" phase-name='trans'>Nous testons.</target>    <alt-trans> </trans-unit>

XLIFF in Action with Web Services
This solution was implemented for a customer of Bowne Global Solutions (BGS) that manufactures automobiles. They had a significant Web presence but wanted to expand their Web site to be more global by providing the content in a range of languages. There was a complicated process involved in the localization of their existing Web site. They were concerned that this process was adding extra cost without the corresponding value.

Together with this customer, BGS designed a solution that made innovative use of XLIFF, Web services, and BGS's online translation service, Elcano. Figure 3 shows the system that was built in order to achieve this. The repository on the customer's side was a Content Management System (CMS).

More Stories By Peter Reynolds

Peter Reynolds is manager of the software development team at the Dublin, Ireland office of Bowne Global Solutions (BGS), the leading provider of localization and translation solution. Peter and his team are responsible for developing some of the software that BGS use to run their business, including Elcano, the online translation service, and myInfoShare, the online project collaboration workspace. Peter has been working on XLIFF since its inception and is a founder member and secretary of the OASIS XLIFF Technical Committee. He also chairs the OASIS Translation Web Services Technical Committee.

More Stories By Tony Jewtushenko

Tony Jewtushenko is the founding and present chair of the XLIFF TC as well as the director of R&D for Product Innovator (www.productinnovator.com), a Dublin, Ireland-based consultancy that provides product management, process improvement, localization, and internationalization services to software companies.
During his 23-year career, Tony was a key contributor to dozens of releases of successful commercial software products, including Lotus 1-2-3 and Notes, Oracle JDeveloper, and iDS. His multinational work and life experience spans USA, Europe, Middle East, and Asia.

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@ThingsExpo Stories
Consumers increasingly expect their electronic "things" to be connected to smart phones, tablets and the Internet. When that thing happens to be a medical device, the risks and benefits of connectivity must be carefully weighed. Once the decision is made that connecting the device is beneficial, medical device manufacturers must design their products to maintain patient safety and prevent compromised personal health information in the face of cybersecurity threats. In his session at @ThingsExpo...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Massive Networks will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Massive Networks mission is simple. To help your business operate seamlessly with fast, reliable, and secure internet and network solutions. Improve your customer's experience with outstanding connections to your cloud.
The question before companies today is not whether to become intelligent, it’s a question of how and how fast. The key is to adopt and deploy an intelligent application strategy while simultaneously preparing to scale that intelligence. In her session at 21st Cloud Expo, Sangeeta Chakraborty, Chief Customer Officer at Ayasdi, will provide a tactical framework to become a truly intelligent enterprise, including how to identify the right applications for AI, how to build a Center of Excellence to ...
From 2013, NTT Communications has been providing cPaaS service, SkyWay. Its customer’s expectations for leveraging WebRTC technology are not only typical real-time communication use cases such as Web conference, remote education, but also IoT use cases such as remote camera monitoring, smart-glass, and robotic. Because of this, NTT Communications has numerous IoT business use-cases that its customers are developing on top of PaaS. WebRTC will lead IoT businesses to be more innovative and address...
Everything run by electricity will eventually be connected to the Internet. Get ahead of the Internet of Things revolution and join Akvelon expert and IoT industry leader, Sergey Grebnov, in his session at @ThingsExpo, for an educational dive into the world of managing your home, workplace and all the devices they contain with the power of machine-based AI and intelligent Bot services for a completely streamlined experience.
Because IoT devices are deployed in mission-critical environments more than ever before, it’s increasingly imperative they be truly smart. IoT sensors simply stockpiling data isn’t useful. IoT must be artificially and naturally intelligent in order to provide more value In his session at @ThingsExpo, John Crupi, Vice President and Engineering System Architect at Greenwave Systems, will discuss how IoT artificial intelligence (AI) can be carried out via edge analytics and machine learning techn...
WebRTC is the future of browser-to-browser communications, and continues to make inroads into the traditional, difficult, plug-in web communications world. The 6th WebRTC Summit continues our tradition of delivering the latest and greatest presentations within the world of WebRTC. Topics include voice calling, video chat, P2P file sharing, and use cases that have already leveraged the power and convenience of WebRTC.
SYS-CON Events announced today that GrapeUp, the leading provider of rapid product development at the speed of business, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place October 31-November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Grape Up is a software company, specialized in cloud native application development and professional services related to Cloud Foundry PaaS. With five expert teams that operate in various sectors of the market acr...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Datera, that offers a radically new data management architecture, has been named "Exhibitor" of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo ®, which will take place on Oct 31 - Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Datera is transforming the traditional datacenter model through modern cloud simplicity. The technology industry is at another major inflection point. The rise of mobile, the Internet of Things, data storage and Big...
In his opening keynote at 20th Cloud Expo, Michael Maximilien, Research Scientist, Architect, and Engineer at IBM, discussed the full potential of the cloud and social data requires artificial intelligence. By mixing Cloud Foundry and the rich set of Watson services, IBM's Bluemix is the best cloud operating system for enterprises today, providing rapid development and deployment of applications that can take advantage of the rich catalog of Watson services to help drive insights from the vast t...
SYS-CON Events announced today that CA Technologies has been named "Platinum Sponsor" of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place October 31-November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. CA Technologies helps customers succeed in a future where every business - from apparel to energy - is being rewritten by software. From planning to development to management to security, CA creates software that fuels transformation for companies in the applic...
Recently, IoT seems emerging as a solution vehicle for data analytics on real-world scenarios from setting a room temperature setting to predicting a component failure of an aircraft. Compared with developing an application or deploying a cloud service, is an IoT solution unique? If so, how? How does a typical IoT solution architecture consist? And what are the essential components and how are they relevant to each other? How does the security play out? What are the best practices in formulating...
In his session at @ThingsExpo, Arvind Radhakrishnen discussed how IoT offers new business models in banking and financial services organizations with the capability to revolutionize products, payments, channels, business processes and asset management built on strong architectural foundation. The following topics were covered: How IoT stands to impact various business parameters including customer experience, cost and risk management within BFS organizations.
Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place October 31 - November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with 21st Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the most profound change in personal and enterprise IT since the creation of the Worldwide Web more than 20 years ago. All major researchers estimate there will be tens of billions devic...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Elastifile will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 - Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Elastifile Cloud File System (ECFS) is software-defined data infrastructure designed for seamless and efficient management of dynamic workloads across heterogeneous environments. Elastifile provides the architecture needed to optimize your hybrid cloud environment, by facilitating efficient...
There is only one world-class Cloud event on earth, and that is Cloud Expo – which returns to Silicon Valley for the 21st Cloud Expo at the Santa Clara Convention Center, October 31 - November 2, 2017. Every Global 2000 enterprise in the world is now integrating cloud computing in some form into its IT development and operations. Midsize and small businesses are also migrating to the cloud in increasing numbers. Companies are each developing their unique mix of cloud technologies and service...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Golden Gate University will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Since 1901, non-profit Golden Gate University (GGU) has been helping adults achieve their professional goals by providing high quality, practice-based undergraduate and graduate educational programs in law, taxation, business and related professions. Many of its courses are taug...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Grape Up will exhibit at SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on Oct. 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Grape Up is a software company specializing in cloud native application development and professional services related to Cloud Foundry PaaS. With five expert teams that operate in various sectors of the market across the U.S. and Europe, Grape Up works with a variety of customers from emergi...
SYS-CON Events announced today that DXWorldExpo has been named “Global Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 21st International Cloud Expo, which will take place on Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Digital Transformation is the key issue driving the global enterprise IT business. Digital Transformation is most prominent among Global 2000 enterprises and government institutions.
21st International Cloud Expo, taking place October 31 - November 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world. Cloud computing is now being embraced by a majority of enterprises of all sizes. Yesterday's debate about public vs. private has transformed into the reality of hybrid cloud: a recent survey shows that 74% of enterprises have a hybrid cloud strategy. Me...