Industrial IoT Authors: Elizabeth White, Stackify Blog, Yeshim Deniz, SmartBear Blog, Liz McMillan

Related Topics: Industrial IoT

Industrial IoT: Article

What Is XLIFF and Why Should I Use It?

A brief overview of the XML Localization Interchange File Format (XLIFF)

The attributes of the trans-unit element can be used to store data about the resource being translated. Note that the id tag in a trans-unit identifies the trans-unit relative to the XLIFF file, and does not represent the native resource id. The resname tag stores the native resource id.

The XLIFF sample code below represents a cancel button. Using this information, a localization resource editor can render the button or windows resource, which can then be visually represented in a WYSIWYG editor.

<trans-unit id='1' resname='IDCANCEL' restype='button' coord='8;8;50;14'>
   <source xml:lang='en'>Cancel</source>

Logically or structurally related trans-unit elements can be grouped together using the group element. An example of where this is useful is representing a dialog box as a group of trans-units that contain its individual components.

The bin-unit is used to store nontextual data such as icons, cursors, or images. The objects can be stored as a reference to an external file or embedded internally within the XLIFF document itself. When stored as an external file reference, the bin-unit contains the address where the file is found. The binary file can also be embedded within the bin-unit as base-64 encoded data.

If there is localizable text associated with the binary object, it can be stored in one or more trans-unit elements contained within the bin-unit.

The context-group element and its child context provide a method for storing resource metadata related to the trans-unit. This structure keeps track of vital information that may be used to rebuild the content into its native format, or to identify resource-related content such as custom control class names or related properties.

Listing 3 shows how to represent PO (portable object) files when the translation unit occurs in multiple positions within a file. In the example, we use context-group elements to represent each individual position.

One of the major initiatives within XLIFF 1.1 is the use of XML schema namespaces to allow XLIFF to be embedded within another XML document or for XLIFF to be extended with another namespace. A company might have an XML application that meets their needs in all areas except localization. A small section of XLIFF could be embedded within this file to deal with that. It is also possible to embed a section of another XML vocabulary at particular extension points within an XML document.

Listing 4 shows an example of how an XLIFF document could be extended. The "mysc" elements are embedded within the XLIFF document and are identified by its namespace.

Alternate Translations
The alt-trans element is used to store alternative translations. This could be Translation Memory, Machine Translation, a previous translation, or a previous translation in a different dialect than the current target language. An example of where you would store a different dialect would be where you have translated an English document to French Canadian and you previously have a French translation. The XLIFF file would have English as the source language and French Canadian as the target language, but you can provide the French translation as the alternative translation in the alt-trans element.

The example below illustrates a previous translation of similar text is available and the alt-trans element, with this translation, is placed within the trans-unit.

   <source xml:lang="en-US">We are testing XLIFF.</source>
   <target state="needs-review-translation" xml:lang="fr-CA>Nous testons
    <target xml:lang="fr-FR">Nous testons.</target>

Version Control
Within an XLIFF document, it is possible to keep track of what is happening with the use of the phase element. This can be used for version control where different versions of the translation are stored in the alt-trans element, or it can used to provide other control data.

The phase element is used inside the header element and this provides the details of a particular phase. Information such as what was done to a segment with a particular tool can be tracked here.

   <phase phase-name='trans' process-name='translation' tool='Trados'
   <phase phase-name='edit' process-name='editing' tool='Trados'

A target element can be associated with a particular phase. In the example below, we have used the phase element to show that the target element introduced during the phase labelled "trans." Details of this phase would be specified in the header section.

<trans-unit>    <source xml:lang="en-US">We are testing XLIFF.</source>    <target xml:lang="fr">Nous testons XLIFF.</target>    <alt-trans>     <source xml:lang="fr">We are testing.</source>     <target xml:lang="fr" phase-name='trans'>Nous testons.</target>    <alt-trans> </trans-unit>

XLIFF in Action with Web Services
This solution was implemented for a customer of Bowne Global Solutions (BGS) that manufactures automobiles. They had a significant Web presence but wanted to expand their Web site to be more global by providing the content in a range of languages. There was a complicated process involved in the localization of their existing Web site. They were concerned that this process was adding extra cost without the corresponding value.

Together with this customer, BGS designed a solution that made innovative use of XLIFF, Web services, and BGS's online translation service, Elcano. Figure 3 shows the system that was built in order to achieve this. The repository on the customer's side was a Content Management System (CMS).

More Stories By Peter Reynolds

Peter Reynolds is manager of the software development team at the Dublin, Ireland office of Bowne Global Solutions (BGS), the leading provider of localization and translation solution. Peter and his team are responsible for developing some of the software that BGS use to run their business, including Elcano, the online translation service, and myInfoShare, the online project collaboration workspace. Peter has been working on XLIFF since its inception and is a founder member and secretary of the OASIS XLIFF Technical Committee. He also chairs the OASIS Translation Web Services Technical Committee.

More Stories By Tony Jewtushenko

Tony Jewtushenko is the founding and present chair of the XLIFF TC as well as the director of R&D for Product Innovator (www.productinnovator.com), a Dublin, Ireland-based consultancy that provides product management, process improvement, localization, and internationalization services to software companies.
During his 23-year career, Tony was a key contributor to dozens of releases of successful commercial software products, including Lotus 1-2-3 and Notes, Oracle JDeveloper, and iDS. His multinational work and life experience spans USA, Europe, Middle East, and Asia.

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.

IoT & Smart Cities Stories
Digital Transformation and Disruption, Amazon Style - What You Can Learn. Chris Kocher is a co-founder of Grey Heron, a management and strategic marketing consulting firm. He has 25+ years in both strategic and hands-on operating experience helping executives and investors build revenues and shareholder value. He has consulted with over 130 companies on innovating with new business models, product strategies and monetization. Chris has held management positions at HP and Symantec in addition to ...
Dynatrace is an application performance management software company with products for the information technology departments and digital business owners of medium and large businesses. Building the Future of Monitoring with Artificial Intelligence. Today we can collect lots and lots of performance data. We build beautiful dashboards and even have fancy query languages to access and transform the data. Still performance data is a secret language only a couple of people understand. The more busine...
DXWorldEXPO LLC announced today that Big Data Federation to Exhibit at the 22nd International CloudEXPO, colocated with DevOpsSUMMIT and DXWorldEXPO, November 12-13, 2018 in New York City. Big Data Federation, Inc. develops and applies artificial intelligence to predict financial and economic events that matter. The company uncovers patterns and precise drivers of performance and outcomes with the aid of machine-learning algorithms, big data, and fundamental analysis. Their products are deployed...
All in Mobile is a place where we continually maximize their impact by fostering understanding, empathy, insights, creativity and joy. They believe that a truly useful and desirable mobile app doesn't need the brightest idea or the most advanced technology. A great product begins with understanding people. It's easy to think that customers will love your app, but can you justify it? They make sure your final app is something that users truly want and need. The only way to do this is by ...
The challenges of aggregating data from consumer-oriented devices, such as wearable technologies and smart thermostats, are fairly well-understood. However, there are a new set of challenges for IoT devices that generate megabytes or gigabytes of data per second. Certainly, the infrastructure will have to change, as those volumes of data will likely overwhelm the available bandwidth for aggregating the data into a central repository. Ochandarena discusses a whole new way to think about your next...
CloudEXPO | DevOpsSUMMIT | DXWorldEXPO are the world's most influential, independent events where Cloud Computing was coined and where technology buyers and vendors meet to experience and discuss the big picture of Digital Transformation and all of the strategies, tactics, and tools they need to realize their goals. Sponsors of DXWorldEXPO | CloudEXPO benefit from unmatched branding, profile building and lead generation opportunities.
Cell networks have the advantage of long-range communications, reaching an estimated 90% of the world. But cell networks such as 2G, 3G and LTE consume lots of power and were designed for connecting people. They are not optimized for low- or battery-powered devices or for IoT applications with infrequently transmitted data. Cell IoT modules that support narrow-band IoT and 4G cell networks will enable cell connectivity, device management, and app enablement for low-power wide-area network IoT. B...
The hierarchical architecture that distributes "compute" within the network specially at the edge can enable new services by harnessing emerging technologies. But Edge-Compute comes at increased cost that needs to be managed and potentially augmented by creative architecture solutions as there will always a catching-up with the capacity demands. Processing power in smartphones has enhanced YoY and there is increasingly spare compute capacity that can be potentially pooled. Uber has successfully ...
SYS-CON Events announced today that CrowdReviews.com has been named “Media Sponsor” of SYS-CON's 22nd International Cloud Expo, which will take place on June 5–7, 2018, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. CrowdReviews.com is a transparent online platform for determining which products and services are the best based on the opinion of the crowd. The crowd consists of Internet users that have experienced products and services first-hand and have an interest in letting other potential buye...
When talking IoT we often focus on the devices, the sensors, the hardware itself. The new smart appliances, the new smart or self-driving cars (which are amalgamations of many ‘things'). When we are looking at the world of IoT, we should take a step back, look at the big picture. What value are these devices providing. IoT is not about the devices, its about the data consumed and generated. The devices are tools, mechanisms, conduits. This paper discusses the considerations when dealing with the...