Welcome!

Industrial IoT Authors: Elizabeth White, Ed Featherston, Stackify Blog, Yeshim Deniz, SmartBear Blog

Related Topics: Industrial IoT

Industrial IoT: Article

What Is XLIFF and Why Should I Use It?

A brief overview of the XML Localization Interchange File Format (XLIFF)

The attributes of the trans-unit element can be used to store data about the resource being translated. Note that the id tag in a trans-unit identifies the trans-unit relative to the XLIFF file, and does not represent the native resource id. The resname tag stores the native resource id.

The XLIFF sample code below represents a cancel button. Using this information, a localization resource editor can render the button or windows resource, which can then be visually represented in a WYSIWYG editor.

<trans-unit id='1' resname='IDCANCEL' restype='button' coord='8;8;50;14'>
   <source xml:lang='en'>Cancel</source>
</trans-unit>

Logically or structurally related trans-unit elements can be grouped together using the group element. An example of where this is useful is representing a dialog box as a group of trans-units that contain its individual components.

bin-unit
The bin-unit is used to store nontextual data such as icons, cursors, or images. The objects can be stored as a reference to an external file or embedded internally within the XLIFF document itself. When stored as an external file reference, the bin-unit contains the address where the file is found. The binary file can also be embedded within the bin-unit as base-64 encoded data.

If there is localizable text associated with the binary object, it can be stored in one or more trans-unit elements contained within the bin-unit.

context-group/context
The context-group element and its child context provide a method for storing resource metadata related to the trans-unit. This structure keeps track of vital information that may be used to rebuild the content into its native format, or to identify resource-related content such as custom control class names or related properties.

Listing 3 shows how to represent PO (portable object) files when the translation unit occurs in multiple positions within a file. In the example, we use context-group elements to represent each individual position.

Extensibility
One of the major initiatives within XLIFF 1.1 is the use of XML schema namespaces to allow XLIFF to be embedded within another XML document or for XLIFF to be extended with another namespace. A company might have an XML application that meets their needs in all areas except localization. A small section of XLIFF could be embedded within this file to deal with that. It is also possible to embed a section of another XML vocabulary at particular extension points within an XML document.

Listing 4 shows an example of how an XLIFF document could be extended. The "mysc" elements are embedded within the XLIFF document and are identified by its namespace.

Alternate Translations
The alt-trans element is used to store alternative translations. This could be Translation Memory, Machine Translation, a previous translation, or a previous translation in a different dialect than the current target language. An example of where you would store a different dialect would be where you have translated an English document to French Canadian and you previously have a French translation. The XLIFF file would have English as the source language and French Canadian as the target language, but you can provide the French translation as the alternative translation in the alt-trans element.

The example below illustrates a previous translation of similar text is available and the alt-trans element, with this translation, is placed within the trans-unit.

<trans-unit>
   <source xml:lang="en-US">We are testing XLIFF.</source>
   <target state="needs-review-translation" xml:lang="fr-CA>Nous testons
XLIFF.</target>
   <alt-trans>
    <target xml:lang="fr-FR">Nous testons.</target>
   <alt-trans>
</trans-unit>

Version Control
Within an XLIFF document, it is possible to keep track of what is happening with the use of the phase element. This can be used for version control where different versions of the translation are stored in the alt-trans element, or it can used to provide other control data.

The phase element is used inside the header element and this provides the details of a particular phase. Information such as what was done to a segment with a particular tool can be tracked here.

<header>
  <phase-group>
   <phase phase-name='trans' process-name='translation' tool='Trados'
   date='2005-04-01T20:01:23Z'/>
   <phase phase-name='edit' process-name='editing' tool='Trados'
   date='2005-04-01T20:01:23Z'/>
  </phase-group>
</header>

A target element can be associated with a particular phase. In the example below, we have used the phase element to show that the target element introduced during the phase labelled "trans." Details of this phase would be specified in the header section.

<trans-unit>    <source xml:lang="en-US">We are testing XLIFF.</source>    <target xml:lang="fr">Nous testons XLIFF.</target>    <alt-trans>     <source xml:lang="fr">We are testing.</source>     <target xml:lang="fr" phase-name='trans'>Nous testons.</target>    <alt-trans> </trans-unit>

XLIFF in Action with Web Services
This solution was implemented for a customer of Bowne Global Solutions (BGS) that manufactures automobiles. They had a significant Web presence but wanted to expand their Web site to be more global by providing the content in a range of languages. There was a complicated process involved in the localization of their existing Web site. They were concerned that this process was adding extra cost without the corresponding value.

Together with this customer, BGS designed a solution that made innovative use of XLIFF, Web services, and BGS's online translation service, Elcano. Figure 3 shows the system that was built in order to achieve this. The repository on the customer's side was a Content Management System (CMS).

More Stories By Peter Reynolds

Peter Reynolds is manager of the software development team at the Dublin, Ireland office of Bowne Global Solutions (BGS), the leading provider of localization and translation solution. Peter and his team are responsible for developing some of the software that BGS use to run their business, including Elcano, the online translation service, and myInfoShare, the online project collaboration workspace. Peter has been working on XLIFF since its inception and is a founder member and secretary of the OASIS XLIFF Technical Committee. He also chairs the OASIS Translation Web Services Technical Committee.

More Stories By Tony Jewtushenko

Tony Jewtushenko is the founding and present chair of the XLIFF TC as well as the director of R&D for Product Innovator (www.productinnovator.com), a Dublin, Ireland-based consultancy that provides product management, process improvement, localization, and internationalization services to software companies.
During his 23-year career, Tony was a key contributor to dozens of releases of successful commercial software products, including Lotus 1-2-3 and Notes, Oracle JDeveloper, and iDS. His multinational work and life experience spans USA, Europe, Middle East, and Asia.

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@ThingsExpo Stories
BnkToTheFuture.com is the largest online investment platform for investing in FinTech, Bitcoin and Blockchain companies. We believe the future of finance looks very different from the past and we aim to invest and provide trading opportunities for qualifying investors that want to build a portfolio in the sector in compliance with international financial regulations.
A strange thing is happening along the way to the Internet of Things, namely far too many devices to work with and manage. It has become clear that we'll need much higher efficiency user experiences that can allow us to more easily and scalably work with the thousands of devices that will soon be in each of our lives. Enter the conversational interface revolution, combining bots we can literally talk with, gesture to, and even direct with our thoughts, with embedded artificial intelligence, whic...
Imagine if you will, a retail floor so densely packed with sensors that they can pick up the movements of insects scurrying across a store aisle. Or a component of a piece of factory equipment so well-instrumented that its digital twin provides resolution down to the micrometer.
In his keynote at 18th Cloud Expo, Andrew Keys, Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise, provided an overview of the evolution of the Internet and the Database and the future of their combination – the Blockchain. Andrew Keys is Co-Founder of ConsenSys Enterprise. He comes to ConsenSys Enterprise with capital markets, technology and entrepreneurial experience. Previously, he worked for UBS investment bank in equities analysis. Later, he was responsible for the creation and distribution of life settle...
Product connectivity goes hand and hand these days with increased use of personal data. New IoT devices are becoming more personalized than ever before. In his session at 22nd Cloud Expo | DXWorld Expo, Nicolas Fierro, CEO of MIMIR Blockchain Solutions, will discuss how in order to protect your data and privacy, IoT applications need to embrace Blockchain technology for a new level of product security never before seen - or needed.
Leading companies, from the Global Fortune 500 to the smallest companies, are adopting hybrid cloud as the path to business advantage. Hybrid cloud depends on cloud services and on-premises infrastructure working in unison. Successful implementations require new levels of data mobility, enabled by an automated and seamless flow across on-premises and cloud resources. In his general session at 21st Cloud Expo, Greg Tevis, an IBM Storage Software Technical Strategist and Customer Solution Architec...
Nordstrom is transforming the way that they do business and the cloud is the key to enabling speed and hyper personalized customer experiences. In his session at 21st Cloud Expo, Ken Schow, VP of Engineering at Nordstrom, discussed some of the key learnings and common pitfalls of large enterprises moving to the cloud. This includes strategies around choosing a cloud provider(s), architecture, and lessons learned. In addition, he covered some of the best practices for structured team migration an...
No hype cycles or predictions of a gazillion things here. IoT is here. You get it. You know your business and have great ideas for a business transformation strategy. What comes next? Time to make it happen. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jay Mason, an Associate Partner of Analytics, IoT & Cybersecurity at M&S Consulting, presented a step-by-step plan to develop your technology implementation strategy. He also discussed the evaluation of communication standards and IoT messaging protocols, data...
Coca-Cola’s Google powered digital signage system lays the groundwork for a more valuable connection between Coke and its customers. Digital signs pair software with high-resolution displays so that a message can be changed instantly based on what the operator wants to communicate or sell. In their Day 3 Keynote at 21st Cloud Expo, Greg Chambers, Global Group Director, Digital Innovation, Coca-Cola, and Vidya Nagarajan, a Senior Product Manager at Google, discussed how from store operations and ...
In his session at 21st Cloud Expo, Raju Shreewastava, founder of Big Data Trunk, provided a fun and simple way to introduce Machine Leaning to anyone and everyone. He solved a machine learning problem and demonstrated an easy way to be able to do machine learning without even coding. Raju Shreewastava is the founder of Big Data Trunk (www.BigDataTrunk.com), a Big Data Training and consulting firm with offices in the United States. He previously led the data warehouse/business intelligence and B...
"IBM is really all in on blockchain. We take a look at sort of the history of blockchain ledger technologies. It started out with bitcoin, Ethereum, and IBM evaluated these particular blockchain technologies and found they were anonymous and permissionless and that many companies were looking for permissioned blockchain," stated René Bostic, Technical VP of the IBM Cloud Unit in North America, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 21st Cloud Expo, held Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Conventi...
When shopping for a new data processing platform for IoT solutions, many development teams want to be able to test-drive options before making a choice. Yet when evaluating an IoT solution, it’s simply not feasible to do so at scale with physical devices. Building a sensor simulator is the next best choice; however, generating a realistic simulation at very high TPS with ease of configurability is a formidable challenge. When dealing with multiple application or transport protocols, you would be...
Smart cities have the potential to change our lives at so many levels for citizens: less pollution, reduced parking obstacles, better health, education and more energy savings. Real-time data streaming and the Internet of Things (IoT) possess the power to turn this vision into a reality. However, most organizations today are building their data infrastructure to focus solely on addressing immediate business needs vs. a platform capable of quickly adapting emerging technologies to address future ...
We are given a desktop platform with Java 8 or Java 9 installed and seek to find a way to deploy high-performance Java applications that use Java 3D and/or Jogl without having to run an installer. We are subject to the constraint that the applications be signed and deployed so that they can be run in a trusted environment (i.e., outside of the sandbox). Further, we seek to do this in a way that does not depend on bundling a JRE with our applications, as this makes downloads and installations rat...
Widespread fragmentation is stalling the growth of the IIoT and making it difficult for partners to work together. The number of software platforms, apps, hardware and connectivity standards is creating paralysis among businesses that are afraid of being locked into a solution. EdgeX Foundry is unifying the community around a common IoT edge framework and an ecosystem of interoperable components.
DX World EXPO, LLC, a Lighthouse Point, Florida-based startup trade show producer and the creator of "DXWorldEXPO® - Digital Transformation Conference & Expo" has announced its executive management team. The team is headed by Levent Selamoglu, who has been named CEO. "Now is the time for a truly global DX event, to bring together the leading minds from the technology world in a conversation about Digital Transformation," he said in making the announcement.
In this strange new world where more and more power is drawn from business technology, companies are effectively straddling two paths on the road to innovation and transformation into digital enterprises. The first path is the heritage trail – with “legacy” technology forming the background. Here, extant technologies are transformed by core IT teams to provide more API-driven approaches. Legacy systems can restrict companies that are transitioning into digital enterprises. To truly become a lead...
Digital Transformation (DX) is not a "one-size-fits all" strategy. Each organization needs to develop its own unique, long-term DX plan. It must do so by realizing that we now live in a data-driven age, and that technologies such as Cloud Computing, Big Data, the IoT, Cognitive Computing, and Blockchain are only tools. In her general session at 21st Cloud Expo, Rebecca Wanta explained how the strategy must focus on DX and include a commitment from top management to create great IT jobs, monitor ...
"Cloud Academy is an enterprise training platform for the cloud, specifically public clouds. We offer guided learning experiences on AWS, Azure, Google Cloud and all the surrounding methodologies and technologies that you need to know and your teams need to know in order to leverage the full benefits of the cloud," explained Alex Brower, VP of Marketing at Cloud Academy, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 21st Cloud Expo, held Oct 31 – Nov 2, 2017, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clar...
The IoT Will Grow: In what might be the most obvious prediction of the decade, the IoT will continue to expand next year, with more and more devices coming online every single day. What isn’t so obvious about this prediction: where that growth will occur. The retail, healthcare, and industrial/supply chain industries will likely see the greatest growth. Forrester Research has predicted the IoT will become “the backbone” of customer value as it continues to grow. It is no surprise that retail is ...