|By Peter Reynolds, Tony Jewtushenko||
|September 19, 2005 03:00 PM EDT||
Much time, energy, and commitment are required to develop and sell successful software products and Web-based services. Most products of this type are initially developed for a specific language and locale (e.g., U.S. English). To maximize return on investment, products can be customized so they may be available to the largest possible market - the global market. This customization process is known as localization.
Localization includes not only translation of the displayed text, but also adaptation of a product to comply with a country's cultural and legal practices. Examples of cultural conventions include date/time formats, postal address formats, font sizes, appropriateness of colors, numeric or currency formats and symbols, culturally appropriate icons or graphics, etc. The diversity of software platforms and technologies means that tools and technologies that support localization are also diverse and are frequently incompatible with each other. Industry standards drive process and technology efficiencies, and OASIS XLIFF (XML Localization Interchange File Format) has emerged as a standard interchange file format for localization-related data and metadata. This article will introduce the process of localization and summarize the challenges and issues facing those who localize. It will illustrate how XLIFF addresses many of the challenges and issues with descriptions of its architecture, provide examples of how to use it in real life, and discuss how it was developed and where it goes from here.
Localization: A Brief Overview
Having a product available in a different language increases the potential market into which it can be sold. Microsoft, IBM, and Oracle earn more than 60 percent of their sales from international markets. IBM recently reported that 70 percent of Web users speak a primary language other English. Within the United States, 18 percent of the population speak a language other than English at home. The Canadian Translation Bureau has reported that Canada represents 4 to 8 percent of the global translation services market with only 0.5 percent of the world's population.
The software localization industry was born in the mid 1980s as a result of the personal computer revolution. Early projects were very engineering intensive. Software developers would usually throw the final version of the application over the proverbial wall and expect the localization team to do the rest. The user interface and functional code were in the same file, which meant that functionality problems would often be introduced during the translation process. Before translation could begin, a software engineer would first need to change the character set code pages to ensure that software could be translated into the target language. Separating code from the UI required significant software development and localization resources. Physically and logically partitioning the UI data into separate resource containers reduced the severity and frequency of functionality defects introduced by the localization process.
The introduction of the Unicode character set standard and the growing emphasis on internationalization as a standard component of the software engineering practice was a very significant benefit to reducing the time and cost of localization. Internationalization is the process of developing software in such a way that it can run in different international environments without adapting or recompiling the code. Unicode introduced a common character set code page, and it is one of the corner-stones of software internationalization. The World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C) specifications and guidelines have addressed localization issues such as the separation of code and UI, character set issues, and date and time formatting. Cultural and economic factors are motivating many organizations to design and adapt their products for delivery to the global markets.
Today global markets are not content to wait months or even weeks for locally adapted software to be made available to them, so localization must now be done in parallel with the core product development. "Throwing software over the wall" to be localized after a product is sold is no longer an option.
The Internet introduces new challenges into the localization process by enabling more complex distribution models. Products and content are rolled out simultaneously throughout the global markets. The proliferation of diverse architectural frameworks and technologies upon which Internet and e-business applications are built has resulted in different degrees of complexity in both the core development and in localization.
Throughout its history, the localization industry addressed these business challenges through improvements in tools and processes delivered by competing vendors. Their solutions addressed specific technical or process requirements, but were rarely interoperable, which often resulted in vendor lock-in. With XLIFF, the localization industry got together to find a solution to some of the challenges that the industry is now facing.
Localization Challenges Addressed by XLIFF
XLIFF has already provided solutions to difficult localization challenges, including the following.
Challenge: Many different file formats to localize - The typical localization project is composed of data stored within many unique resource formats. Building tools to support the localization of these formats is costly and inefficient.
Solution: Transform or extract all localizable resources, regardless of native format, into XLIFF containers. For example, before XLIFF existed, one major database and enterprise software vendor localized 32 unique resource formats. Some of the formats were proprietary, others were legacy, but most were industry standards (i.e., Java List Resource and Property Resource Bundles, Windows RC Data, .html, .jsp, and various XML). Additionally, each new release introduced additional resource formats, usually XML-based, but each required extensive retooling of the localization tools, which lead to quality problems and scheduling delays. To reduce the retooling work and its consequences, the core development teams were given the responsibility of extracting or transforming the new resource formats to XLIFF before handing off for translation. Three years and three major releases later, the number of unique resource formats supported by the localization tools was reduced from 32 to a much more manageable 17. Additionally, by adopting XLIFF, the tools development team was able to shift resources that had been dedicated to retooling onto building new cost-saving enhancements such as XLIFF's built-in suggested translations features. Listing 1 is an example of a Java properties file and its XLIFF representation.
Challenge: Lack of version management metadata in native resource containers - Localization projects often run concurrently with core development projects, which means that resource files will be made of up of multiple versions or milestones. Version management at the segment level (a segment is the smallest discrete unit of translatable text) is a very useful feature if your goal is to maximize the reuse of previous translations. Web content is often dynamic, and multilingual content must be kept in sync in order to maintain quality. Few if any native resource containers provide a means of tracking the version of the content.
Solution: XLIFF provides metadata structures for tracking versions of source and translated content.
Challenge: Lack of workflow metadata in native resources - During the localization process, data passes through many different hands. Data to be localized is typically externalized by software publishers and handed off to a localization service provider, who in turn may hand it over to translation subcontractors. At each stage of the process, the types of data required are unique to the particular phase (source/target text, Translation Memory, Machine Translation, Termbase, etc.). Introducing automation into a development process saves money and resources and improves quality by ensuring the reproducibility of the process. Native resource files don't usually contain mechanisms for tracking the stage of the process at which changes were introduced to the localization process.
The cloud market growth today is largely in public clouds. While there is a lot of spend in IT departments in virtualization, these aren’t yet translating into a true “cloud” experience within the enterprise. What is stopping the growth of the “private cloud” market? In his general session at 18th Cloud Expo, Nara Rajagopalan, CEO of Accelerite, explored the challenges in deploying, managing, and getting adoption for a private cloud within an enterprise. What are the key differences between wh...
Jul. 29, 2016 09:45 AM EDT Reads: 2,116
For basic one-to-one voice or video calling solutions, WebRTC has proven to be a very powerful technology. Although WebRTC’s core functionality is to provide secure, real-time p2p media streaming, leveraging native platform features and server-side components brings up new communication capabilities for web and native mobile applications, allowing for advanced multi-user use cases such as video broadcasting, conferencing, and media recording.
Jul. 29, 2016 09:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,014
SYS-CON Events announced today that Venafi, the Immune System for the Internet™ and the leading provider of Next Generation Trust Protection, will exhibit at @DevOpsSummit at 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. Venafi is the Immune System for the Internet™ that protects the foundation of all cybersecurity – cryptographic keys and digital certificates – so they can’t be misused by bad guys in attacks...
Jul. 29, 2016 09:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,443
There will be new vendors providing applications, middleware, and connected devices to support the thriving IoT ecosystem. This essentially means that electronic device manufacturers will also be in the software business. Many will be new to building embedded software or robust software. This creates an increased importance on software quality, particularly within the Industrial Internet of Things where business-critical applications are becoming dependent on products controlled by software. Qua...
Jul. 29, 2016 07:15 AM EDT Reads: 1,625
In addition to all the benefits, IoT is also bringing new kind of customer experience challenges - cars that unlock themselves, thermostats turning houses into saunas and baby video monitors broadcasting over the internet. This list can only increase because while IoT services should be intuitive and simple to use, the delivery ecosystem is a myriad of potential problems as IoT explodes complexity. So finding a performance issue is like finding the proverbial needle in the haystack.
Jul. 29, 2016 06:45 AM EDT Reads: 2,362
Machine Learning helps make complex systems more efficient. By applying advanced Machine Learning techniques such as Cognitive Fingerprinting, wind project operators can utilize these tools to learn from collected data, detect regular patterns, and optimize their own operations. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Stuart Gillen, Director of Business Development at SparkCognition, discussed how research has demonstrated the value of Machine Learning in delivering next generation analytics to imp...
Jul. 29, 2016 04:45 AM EDT Reads: 2,567
The 19th International Cloud Expo has announced that its Call for Papers is open. Cloud Expo, to be held November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, brings together Cloud Computing, Big Data, Internet of Things, DevOps, Digital Transformation, Microservices and WebRTC to one location. With cloud computing driving a higher percentage of enterprise IT budgets every year, it becomes increasingly important to plant your flag in this fast-expanding business opportuni...
Jul. 29, 2016 04:15 AM EDT Reads: 2,679
The Internet of Things will challenge the status quo of how IT and development organizations operate. Or will it? Certainly the fog layer of IoT requires special insights about data ontology, security and transactional integrity. But the developmental challenges are the same: People, Process and Platform. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Craig Sproule, CEO of Metavine, demonstrated how to move beyond today's coding paradigm and shared the must-have mindsets for removing complexity from the develo...
Jul. 29, 2016 02:45 AM EDT Reads: 1,610
SYS-CON Events announced today that MangoApps will exhibit at the 19th International Cloud Expo, which will take place on November 1–3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA. MangoApps provides modern company intranets and team collaboration software, allowing workers to stay connected and productive from anywhere in the world and from any device.
Jul. 29, 2016 02:30 AM EDT Reads: 1,466
Large scale deployments present unique planning challenges, system commissioning hurdles between IT and OT and demand careful system hand-off orchestration. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Jeff Smith, Senior Director and a founding member of Incenergy, will discuss some of the key tactics to ensure delivery success based on his experience of the last two years deploying Industrial IoT systems across four continents.
Jul. 29, 2016 02:00 AM EDT Reads: 1,693
Basho Technologies has announced the latest release of Basho Riak TS, version 1.3. Riak TS is an enterprise-grade NoSQL database optimized for Internet of Things (IoT). The open source version enables developers to download the software for free and use it in production as well as make contributions to the code and develop applications around Riak TS. Enhancements to Riak TS make it quick, easy and cost-effective to spin up an instance to test new ideas and build IoT applications. In addition to...
Jul. 29, 2016 12:15 AM EDT Reads: 2,009
Identity is in everything and customers are looking to their providers to ensure the security of their identities, transactions and data. With the increased reliance on cloud-based services, service providers must build security and trust into their offerings, adding value to customers and improving the user experience. Making identity, security and privacy easy for customers provides a unique advantage over the competition.
Jul. 28, 2016 11:45 PM EDT Reads: 1,268
"We've discovered that after shows 80% if leads that people get, 80% of the conversations end up on the show floor, meaning people forget about it, people forget who they talk to, people forget that there are actual business opportunities to be had here so we try to help out and keep the conversations going," explained Jeff Mesnik, Founder and President of ContentMX, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
Jul. 28, 2016 10:15 PM EDT Reads: 1,451
"There's a growing demand from users for things to be faster. When you think about all the transactions or interactions users will have with your product and everything that is between those transactions and interactions - what drives us at Catchpoint Systems is the idea to measure that and to analyze it," explained Leo Vasiliou, Director of Web Performance Engineering at Catchpoint Systems, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York Ci...
Jul. 28, 2016 10:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,104
Internet of @ThingsExpo, taking place November 1-3, 2016, at the Santa Clara Convention Center in Santa Clara, CA, is co-located with the 19th International Cloud Expo and will feature technical sessions from a rock star conference faculty and the leading industry players in the world and ThingsExpo Silicon Valley Call for Papers is now open.
Jul. 28, 2016 09:00 PM EDT Reads: 2,727
I wanted to gather all of my Internet of Things (IOT) blogs into a single blog (that I could later use with my University of San Francisco (USF) Big Data “MBA” course). However as I started to pull these blogs together, I realized that my IOT discussion lacked a vision; it lacked an end point towards which an organization could drive their IOT envisioning, proof of value, app dev, data engineering and data science efforts. And I think that the IOT end point is really quite simple…
Jul. 28, 2016 07:15 PM EDT Reads: 1,258
"My role is working with customers, helping them go through this digital transformation. I spend a lot of time talking to banks, big industries, manufacturers working through how they are integrating and transforming their IT platforms and moving them forward," explained William Morrish, General Manager Product Sales at Interoute, in this SYS-CON.tv interview at 18th Cloud Expo, held June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY.
Jul. 28, 2016 05:30 PM EDT Reads: 2,231
You think you know what’s in your data. But do you? Most organizations are now aware of the business intelligence represented by their data. Data science stands to take this to a level you never thought of – literally. The techniques of data science, when used with the capabilities of Big Data technologies, can make connections you had not yet imagined, helping you discover new insights and ask new questions of your data. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Sarbjit Sarkaria, data science team lead ...
Jul. 28, 2016 04:30 PM EDT Reads: 1,213
Extracting business value from Internet of Things (IoT) data doesn’t happen overnight. There are several requirements that must be satisfied, including IoT device enablement, data analysis, real-time detection of complex events and automated orchestration of actions. Unfortunately, too many companies fall short in achieving their business goals by implementing incomplete solutions or not focusing on tangible use cases. In his general session at @ThingsExpo, Dave McCarthy, Director of Products...
Jul. 28, 2016 04:15 PM EDT Reads: 1,797
WebRTC is bringing significant change to the communications landscape that will bridge the worlds of web and telephony, making the Internet the new standard for communications. Cloud9 took the road less traveled and used WebRTC to create a downloadable enterprise-grade communications platform that is changing the communication dynamic in the financial sector. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Leo Papadopoulos, CTO of Cloud9, discussed the importance of WebRTC and how it enables companies to focus...
Jul. 28, 2016 03:45 PM EDT Reads: 1,057