Welcome!

Industrial IoT Authors: Elizabeth White, Pat Romanski, David Balaban, John Esposito, William Schmarzo

Related Topics: Industrial IoT

Industrial IoT: Article

What Is XLIFF and Why Should I Use It?

A brief overview of the XML Localization Interchange File Format (XLIFF)

Much time, energy, and commitment are required to develop and sell successful software products and Web-based services. Most products of this type are initially developed for a specific language and locale (e.g., U.S. English). To maximize return on investment, products can be customized so they may be available to the largest possible market - the global market. This customization process is known as localization.

Localization includes not only translation of the displayed text, but also adaptation of a product to comply with a country's cultural and legal practices. Examples of cultural conventions include date/time formats, postal address formats, font sizes, appropriateness of colors, numeric or currency formats and symbols, culturally appropriate icons or graphics, etc. The diversity of software platforms and technologies means that tools and technologies that support localization are also diverse and are frequently incompatible with each other. Industry standards drive process and technology efficiencies, and OASIS XLIFF (XML Localization Interchange File Format) has emerged as a standard interchange file format for localization-related data and metadata. This article will introduce the process of localization and summarize the challenges and issues facing those who localize. It will illustrate how XLIFF addresses many of the challenges and issues with descriptions of its architecture, provide examples of how to use it in real life, and discuss how it was developed and where it goes from here.

Localization: A Brief Overview
Having a product available in a different language increases the potential market into which it can be sold. Microsoft, IBM, and Oracle earn more than 60 percent of their sales from international markets. IBM recently reported that 70 percent of Web users speak a primary language other English. Within the United States, 18 percent of the population speak a language other than English at home. The Canadian Translation Bureau has reported that Canada represents 4 to 8 percent of the global translation services market with only 0.5 percent of the world's population.

The software localization industry was born in the mid 1980s as a result of the personal computer revolution. Early projects were very engineering intensive. Software developers would usually throw the final version of the application over the proverbial wall and expect the localization team to do the rest. The user interface and functional code were in the same file, which meant that functionality problems would often be introduced during the translation process. Before translation could begin, a software engineer would first need to change the character set code pages to ensure that software could be translated into the target language. Separating code from the UI required significant software development and localization resources. Physically and logically partitioning the UI data into separate resource containers reduced the severity and frequency of functionality defects introduced by the localization process.

The introduction of the Unicode character set standard and the growing emphasis on internationalization as a standard component of the software engineering practice was a very significant benefit to reducing the time and cost of localization. Internationalization is the process of developing software in such a way that it can run in different international environments without adapting or recompiling the code. Unicode introduced a common character set code page, and it is one of the corner-stones of software internationalization. The World Wide Web Consortium's (W3C) specifications and guidelines have addressed localization issues such as the separation of code and UI, character set issues, and date and time formatting. Cultural and economic factors are motivating many organizations to design and adapt their products for delivery to the global markets.

Today global markets are not content to wait months or even weeks for locally adapted software to be made available to them, so localization must now be done in parallel with the core product development. "Throwing software over the wall" to be localized after a product is sold is no longer an option.

The Internet introduces new challenges into the localization process by enabling more complex distribution models. Products and content are rolled out simultaneously throughout the global markets. The proliferation of diverse architectural frameworks and technologies upon which Internet and e-business applications are built has resulted in different degrees of complexity in both the core development and in localization.

Throughout its history, the localization industry addressed these business challenges through improvements in tools and processes delivered by competing vendors. Their solutions addressed specific technical or process requirements, but were rarely interoperable, which often resulted in vendor lock-in. With XLIFF, the localization industry got together to find a solution to some of the challenges that the industry is now facing.

Localization Challenges Addressed by XLIFF
XLIFF has already provided solutions to difficult localization challenges, including the following.

Challenge: Many different file formats to localize - The typical localization project is composed of data stored within many unique resource formats. Building tools to support the localization of these formats is costly and inefficient.

Solution: Transform or extract all localizable resources, regardless of native format, into XLIFF containers. For example, before XLIFF existed, one major database and enterprise software vendor localized 32 unique resource formats. Some of the formats were proprietary, others were legacy, but most were industry standards (i.e., Java List Resource and Property Resource Bundles, Windows RC Data, .html, .jsp, and various XML). Additionally, each new release introduced additional resource formats, usually XML-based, but each required extensive retooling of the localization tools, which lead to quality problems and scheduling delays. To reduce the retooling work and its consequences, the core development teams were given the responsibility of extracting or transforming the new resource formats to XLIFF before handing off for translation. Three years and three major releases later, the number of unique resource formats supported by the localization tools was reduced from 32 to a much more manageable 17. Additionally, by adopting XLIFF, the tools development team was able to shift resources that had been dedicated to retooling onto building new cost-saving enhancements such as XLIFF's built-in suggested translations features. Listing 1 is an example of a Java properties file and its XLIFF representation.

Challenge: Lack of version management metadata in native resource containers - Localization projects often run concurrently with core development projects, which means that resource files will be made of up of multiple versions or milestones. Version management at the segment level (a segment is the smallest discrete unit of translatable text) is a very useful feature if your goal is to maximize the reuse of previous translations. Web content is often dynamic, and multilingual content must be kept in sync in order to maintain quality. Few if any native resource containers provide a means of tracking the version of the content.

Solution: XLIFF provides metadata structures for tracking versions of source and translated content.

Challenge: Lack of workflow metadata in native resources - During the localization process, data passes through many different hands. Data to be localized is typically externalized by software publishers and handed off to a localization service provider, who in turn may hand it over to translation subcontractors. At each stage of the process, the types of data required are unique to the particular phase (source/target text, Translation Memory, Machine Translation, Termbase, etc.). Introducing automation into a development process saves money and resources and improves quality by ensuring the reproducibility of the process. Native resource files don't usually contain mechanisms for tracking the stage of the process at which changes were introduced to the localization process.

More Stories By Peter Reynolds

Peter Reynolds is manager of the software development team at the Dublin, Ireland office of Bowne Global Solutions (BGS), the leading provider of localization and translation solution. Peter and his team are responsible for developing some of the software that BGS use to run their business, including Elcano, the online translation service, and myInfoShare, the online project collaboration workspace. Peter has been working on XLIFF since its inception and is a founder member and secretary of the OASIS XLIFF Technical Committee. He also chairs the OASIS Translation Web Services Technical Committee.

More Stories By Tony Jewtushenko

Tony Jewtushenko is the founding and present chair of the XLIFF TC as well as the director of R&D for Product Innovator (www.productinnovator.com), a Dublin, Ireland-based consultancy that provides product management, process improvement, localization, and internationalization services to software companies.
During his 23-year career, Tony was a key contributor to dozens of releases of successful commercial software products, including Lotus 1-2-3 and Notes, Oracle JDeveloper, and iDS. His multinational work and life experience spans USA, Europe, Middle East, and Asia.

Comments (0)

Share your thoughts on this story.

Add your comment
You must be signed in to add a comment. Sign-in | Register

In accordance with our Comment Policy, we encourage comments that are on topic, relevant and to-the-point. We will remove comments that include profanity, personal attacks, racial slurs, threats of violence, or other inappropriate material that violates our Terms and Conditions, and will block users who make repeated violations. We ask all readers to expect diversity of opinion and to treat one another with dignity and respect.


@ThingsExpo Stories
Increasing IoT connectivity is forcing enterprises to find elegant solutions to organize and visualize all incoming data from these connected devices with re-configurable dashboard widgets to effectively allow rapid decision-making for everything from immediate actions in tactical situations to strategic analysis and reporting. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Shikhir Singh, Senior Developer Relations Manager at Sencha, will discuss how to create HTML5 dashboards that interact with IoT devic...
In his session at @ThingsExpo, Chris Klein, CEO and Co-founder of Rachio, will discuss next generation communities that are using IoT to create more sustainable, intelligent communities. One example is Sterling Ranch, a 10,000 home development that – with the help of Siemens – will integrate IoT technology into the community to provide residents with energy and water savings as well as intelligent security. Everything from stop lights to sprinkler systems to building infrastructures will run ef...
Artificial Intelligence has the potential to massively disrupt IoT. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, AJ Abdallat, CEO of Beyond AI, will discuss what the five main drivers are in Artificial Intelligence that could shape the future of the Internet of Things. AJ Abdallat is CEO of Beyond AI. He has over 20 years of management experience in the fields of artificial intelligence, sensors, instruments, devices and software for telecommunications, life sciences, environmental monitoring, process...
The demand for organizations to expand their infrastructure to multiple IT environments like the cloud, on-premise, mobile, bring your own device (BYOD) and the Internet of Things (IoT) continues to grow. As this hybrid infrastructure increases, the challenge to monitor the security of these systems increases in volume and complexity. In his session at 18th Cloud Expo, Stephen Coty, Chief Security Evangelist at Alert Logic, will show how properly configured and managed security architecture can...
We’ve worked with dozens of early adopters across numerous industries and will debunk common misperceptions, which starts with understanding that many of the connected products we’ll use over the next 5 years are already products, they’re just not yet connected. With an IoT product, time-in-market provides much more essential feedback than ever before. Innovation comes from what you do with the data that the connected product provides in order to enhance the customer experience and optimize busi...
A critical component of any IoT project is the back-end systems that capture data from remote IoT devices and structure it in a way to answer useful questions. Traditional data warehouse and analytical systems are mature technologies that can be used to handle large data sets, but they are not well suited to many IoT-scale products and the need for real-time insights. At Fuze, we have developed a backend platform as part of our mobility-oriented cloud service that uses Big Data-based approache...
The increasing popularity of the Internet of Things necessitates that our physical and cognitive relationship with wearable technology will change rapidly in the near future. This advent means logging has become a thing of the past. Before, it was on us to track our own data, but now that data is automatically available. What does this mean for mHealth and the "connected" body? In her session at @ThingsExpo, Lisa Calkins, CEO and co-founder of Amadeus Consulting, will discuss the impact of wea...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Ericsson has been named “Gold Sponsor” of SYS-CON's @ThingsExpo, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York, New York. Ericsson is a world leader in the rapidly changing environment of communications technology – providing equipment, software and services to enable transformation through mobility. Some 40 percent of global mobile traffic runs through networks we have supplied. More than 1 billion subscribers around the world re...
SYS-CON Events announced today that Peak 10, Inc., a national IT infrastructure and cloud services provider, will exhibit at SYS-CON's 18th International Cloud Expo®, which will take place on June 7-9, 2016, at the Javits Center in New York City, NY. Peak 10 provides reliable, tailored data center and network services, cloud and managed services. Its solutions are designed to scale and adapt to customers’ changing business needs, enabling them to lower costs, improve performance and focus inter...
The IoTs will challenge the status quo of how IT and development organizations operate. Or will it? Certainly the fog layer of IoT requires special insights about data ontology, security and transactional integrity. But the developmental challenges are the same: People, Process and Platform. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Craig Sproule, CEO of Metavine, will demonstrate how to move beyond today's coding paradigm and share the must-have mindsets for removing complexity from the development proc...
We're entering the post-smartphone era, where wearable gadgets from watches and fitness bands to glasses and health aids will power the next technological revolution. With mass adoption of wearable devices comes a new data ecosystem that must be protected. Wearables open new pathways that facilitate the tracking, sharing and storing of consumers’ personal health, location and daily activity data. Consumers have some idea of the data these devices capture, but most don’t realize how revealing and...
trust and privacy in their ecosystem. Assurance and protection of device identity, secure data encryption and authentication are the key security challenges organizations are trying to address when integrating IoT devices. This holds true for IoT applications in a wide range of industries, for example, healthcare, consumer devices, and manufacturing. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Lancen LaChance, vice president of product management, IoT solutions at GlobalSign, will teach IoT developers how t...
There is an ever-growing explosion of new devices that are connected to the Internet using “cloud” solutions. This rapid growth is creating a massive new demand for efficient access to data. And it’s not just about connecting to that data anymore. This new demand is bringing new issues and challenges and it is important for companies to scale for the coming growth. And with that scaling comes the need for greater security, gathering and data analysis, storage, connectivity and, of course, the...
So, you bought into the current machine learning craze and went on to collect millions/billions of records from this promising new data source. Now, what do you do with them? Too often, the abundance of data quickly turns into an abundance of problems. How do you extract that "magic essence" from your data without falling into the common pitfalls? In her session at @ThingsExpo, Natalia Ponomareva, Software Engineer at Google, will provide tips on how to be successful in large scale machine lear...
Digital payments using wearable devices such as smart watches, fitness trackers, and payment wristbands are an increasing area of focus for industry participants, and consumer acceptance from early trials and deployments has encouraged some of the biggest names in technology and banking to continue their push to drive growth in this nascent market. Wearable payment systems may utilize near field communication (NFC), radio frequency identification (RFID), or quick response (QR) codes and barcodes...
You think you know what’s in your data. But do you? Most organizations are now aware of the business intelligence represented by their data. Data science stands to take this to a level you never thought of – literally. The techniques of data science, when used with the capabilities of Big Data technologies, can make connections you had not yet imagined, helping you discover new insights and ask new questions of your data. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Sarbjit Sarkaria, data science team lead ...
The IETF draft standard for M2M certificates is a security solution specifically designed for the demanding needs of IoT/M2M applications. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Brian Romansky, VP of Strategic Technology at TrustPoint Innovation, will explain how M2M certificates can efficiently enable confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity on highly constrained devices.
Manufacturers are embracing the Industrial Internet the same way consumers are leveraging Fitbits – to improve overall health and wellness. Both can provide consistent measurement, visibility, and suggest performance improvements customized to help reach goals. Fitbit users can view real-time data and make adjustments to increase their activity. In his session at @ThingsExpo, Mark Bernardo Professional Services Leader, Americas, at GE Digital, will discuss how leveraging the Industrial Interne...
Whether your IoT service is connecting cars, homes, appliances, wearable, cameras or other devices, one question hangs in the balance – how do you actually make money from this service? The ability to turn your IoT service into profit requires the ability to create a monetization strategy that is flexible, scalable and working for you in real-time. It must be a transparent, smoothly implemented strategy that all stakeholders – from customers to the board – will be able to understand and comprehe...
You deployed your app with the Bluemix PaaS and it's gaining some serious traction, so it's time to make some tweaks. Did you design your application in a way that it can scale in the cloud? Were you even thinking about the cloud when you built the app? If not, chances are your app is going to break. Check out this webcast to learn various techniques for designing applications that will scale successfully in Bluemix, for the confidence you need to take your apps to the next level and beyond.